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Lithium battery classic 100 questions, it is recommended to collect!

19 Oct, 2021

By hoppt

With the support of policies, the demand for lithium batteries will increase. The application of new technologies and new economic growth models will become the main driving force of the "lithium industry revolution." it can describe the future of listed lithium battery companies. Now sort out 100 questions about lithium batteries; welcome to collect!

ONE. The basic principle and basic terminology of battery

1. What is a battery?

Batteries are a kind of energy conversion and storage devices that convert chemical or physical energy into electrical energy through reactions. According to the different energy conversion of the battery, the battery can be divided into a chemical battery and a biological battery.

A chemical battery or chemical power source is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. It comprises two electrochemically active electrodes with different components, respectively, composed of positive and negative electrodes. A chemical substance that can provide media conduction is used as an electrolyte. When connected to an external carrier, it delivers electrical energy by converting its internal chemical energy.

A physical battery is a device that converts physical energy into electrical energy.

2. What are the differences between primary batteries and secondary batteries?

The main difference is that the active material is different. The active material of the secondary battery is reversible, while the active material of the primary battery is not. The self-discharge of the primary battery is much smaller than that of the secondary battery. Still, the internal resistance is much larger than that of the secondary battery, so the load capacity is lower. In addition, the mass-specific capacity and volume-specific capacity of the primary battery are more significant than those of available rechargeable batteries.

3. What is the electrochemical principle of Ni-MH batteries?

Ni-MH batteries use Ni oxide as the positive electrode, hydrogen storage metal as the negative electrode, and lye (mainly KOH) as the electrolyte. When the nickel-hydrogen battery is charged:

Positive electrode reaction: Ni(OH)2 + OH- → NiOOH + H2O–e-

Adverse electrode reaction: M+H2O +e-→ MH+ OH-

When the Ni-MH battery is discharged:

Positive electrode reaction: NiOOH + H2O + e- → Ni(OH)2 + OH-

Negative electrode reaction: MH+ OH- →M+H2O +e-

4. What is the electrochemical principle of lithium-ion batteries?

The main component of the positive electrode of the lithium-ion battery is LiCoO2, and the negative electrode is mainly C. When charging,

Positive electrode reaction: LiCoO2 → Li1-xCoO2 + xLi+ + xe-

Negative reaction: C + xLi+ + xe- → CLix

Total battery reaction: LiCoO2 + C → Li1-xCoO2 + CLix

The reverse reaction of the above reaction occurs during discharge.

5. What are the commonly used standards for batteries?

Commonly used IEC standards for batteries: The standard for nickel-metal hydride batteries is IEC61951-2: 2003; the lithium-ion battery industry generally follows UL or national standards.

Commonly used national standards for batteries: The standards for nickel-metal hydride batteries are GB/T15100_1994, GB/T18288_2000; the standards for lithium batteries are GB/T10077_1998, YD/T998_1999, and GB/T18287_2000.

In addition, the commonly used standards for batteries also include the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS C on batteries.

IEC, the International Electrical Commission (International Electrical Commission), is a worldwide standardization organization composed of electrical committees of various countries. Its purpose is to promote the standardization of the world's electrical and electronic fields. IEC standards are standards formulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission.

6. What is the main structure of the Ni-MH battery?

The main components of nickel-metal hydride batteries are positive electrode sheet (nickel oxide), negative electrode sheet (hydrogen storage alloy), electrolyte (mainly KOH), diaphragm paper, sealing ring, positive electrode cap, battery case, etc.

7. What are the main structural components of lithium-ion batteries?

The main components of lithium-ion batteries are upper and lower battery covers, positive electrode sheet (active material is lithium cobalt oxide), separator (a special composite membrane), a negative electrode (active material is carbon), organic electrolyte, battery case (divided into two kinds of steel shell and aluminum shell) and so on.

8. What is the internal resistance of the battery?

It refers to the resistance experienced by the current flowing through the battery when the battery is working. It is composed of ohmic internal resistance and polarization internal resistance. The significant internal resistance of the battery will reduce the battery discharge working voltage and shorten the discharge time. The internal resistance is mainly affected by the battery material, manufacturing process, battery structure, and other factors. It is an important parameter to measure battery performance. Note: Generally, the internal resistance in the charged state is the standard. To calculate the battery's internal resistance, it should use a special internal resistance meter instead of a multimeter in the ohm range.

9. What is the nominal voltage?

The nominal voltage of the battery refers to the voltage exhibited during regular operation. The nominal voltage of the secondary nickel-cadmium nickel-hydrogen battery is 1.2V; the nominal voltage of the secondary lithium battery is 3.6V.

10. What is open circuit voltage?

Open circuit voltage refers to the potential difference between the positive and negative electrodes of the battery when the battery is non-working, that is, when there is no current flowing through the circuit. Working voltage, also known as terminal voltage, refers to the potential difference between the positive and negative poles of the battery when the battery is working, that is, when there is overcurrent in the circuit.

11. What is the capacity of the battery?

The capacity of the battery is divided into the rated power and the actual ability. The battery's rated capacity refers to the stipulation or guarantees that the battery should discharge the minimum amount of electricity under certain discharge conditions during the design and manufacture of the storm. The IEC standard stipulates that nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are charged at 0.1C for 16 hours and discharged at 0.2C to 1.0V at a temperature of 20°C±5°C. The battery's rated capacity is expressed as C5. Lithium-ion batteries are stipulated to charge for 3 hours under average temperature, constant current (1C)-constant voltage (4.2V) control demanding conditions, and then discharge at 0.2C to 2.75V when the discharged electricity is rated capacity. The battery's actual capacity refers to the real power released by the storm under certain discharge conditions, which is mainly affected by the discharge rate and temperature (so strictly speaking, the battery capacity should specify the charge and discharge conditions). The unit of battery capacity is Ah, mAh (1Ah=1000mAh).

12. What is the residual discharge capacity of the battery?

When the rechargeable battery is discharged with a large current (such as 1C or above), due to the "bottleneck effect" existing in the internal diffusion rate of the current overcurrent, the battery has reached the terminal voltage when the capacity is not fully discharged, and then uses a small current such as 0.2C can continue to remove, until 1.0V/piece (nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen battery) and 3.0V/piece (lithium battery), the released capacity is called residual capacity.

13. What is a discharge platform?

The discharge platform of Ni-MH rechargeable batteries usually refers to the voltage range in which the battery's working voltage is relatively stable when discharged under a specific discharge system. Its value is related to the discharge current. The larger the current, the lower the weight. The discharge platform of lithium-ion batteries is generally to stop charging when the voltage is 4.2V, and the present is less than 0.01C at a constant voltage, then leave it for 10 minutes, and discharge to 3.6V at any rate of discharge current. It is a necessary standard to measure the quality of batteries.

Second the battery identification.

14. What is the marking method for rechargeable batteries specified by IEC?

According to the IEC standard, the mark of Ni-MH battery consists of 5 parts.

01) Battery type: HF and HR indicate nickel-metal hydride batteries

02) Battery size information: including the diameter and height of the round battery, the height, width, and thickness of the square battery, and the values are separated by a slash, unit: mm

03) Discharge characteristic symbol: L means that the suitable discharge current rate is within 0.5C

M indicates that the suitable discharge current rate is within 0.5-3.5C

H indicates that the suitable discharge current rate is within 3.5-7.0C

X indicates that the battery can work at a high rate discharge current of 7C-15C.

04) High-temperature battery symbol: represented by T

05) Battery connection piece: CF represents no connection piece, HH represents the connection piece for battery pull-type series connection, and HB represents the connection piece for side-by-side series connection of battery belts.

For example, HF18/07/49 represents a square nickel-metal hydride battery with a width of 18mm, 7mm, and a height of 49mm.

KRMT33/62HH represents nickel-cadmium battery; the discharge rate is between 0.5C-3.5, high-temperature series single battery (without connecting piece), diameter 33mm, height 62mm.

According to the IEC61960 standard, the identification of the secondary lithium battery is as follows:

01) The battery logo composition: 3 letters, followed by five numbers (cylindrical) or 6 (square) numbers.

02) The first letter: indicates the harmful electrode material of the battery. I—represents lithium-ion with built-in battery; L—represents lithium metal electrode or lithium alloy electrode.

03) The second letter: indicates the cathode material of the battery. C—cobalt-based electrode; N—nickel-based electrode; M—manganese-based electrode; V—vanadium-based electrode.

04) The third letter: indicates the shape of the battery. R-represents cylindrical battery; L-represents square battery.

05) Numbers: Cylindrical battery: 5 numbers respectively indicate the diameter and height of the storm. The unit of diameter is a millimeter, and the size is a tenth of a millimeter. When any diameter or height is greater than or equal to 100mm, it should add a diagonal line between the two sizes.

Square battery: 6 numbers indicate the thickness, width, and height of the storm in millimeters. When any of the three dimensions is greater than or equal to 100mm, it should add a slash between the dimensions; if any of the three dimensions is less than 1mm, the letter "t" is added in front of this dimension, and the unit of this dimension is one-tenth of a millimeter.

For example, ICR18650 represents a cylindrical secondary lithium-ion battery; the cathode material is cobalt, its diameter is about 18mm, and its height is about 65mm.


ICP083448 represents a square secondary lithium-ion battery; the cathode material is cobalt, its thickness is about 8mm, the width is about 34mm, and the height is about 48mm.

ICP08/34/150 represents a square secondary lithium-ion battery; the cathode material is cobalt, its thickness is about 8mm, the width is about 34mm, and the height is about 150mm.

ICPt73448 represents a square secondary lithium-ion battery; the cathode material is cobalt, its thickness is about 0.7mm, the width is about 34mm, and the height is about 48mm.

15. What are the packaging materials of the battery?

01) Non-dry meson (paper) such as fiber paper, double-sided tape

02) PVC film, trademark tube

03) Connecting sheet: stainless steel sheet, pure nickel sheet, nickel-plated steel sheet

04) Lead-out piece: stainless steel piece (easy to solder)

Pure nickel sheet (spot-welded firmly)

05) Plugs

06) Protection components such as temperature control switches, overcurrent protectors, current limiting resistors

07) Carton, paper box

08) Plastic shell

16. What is the purpose of battery packaging, assembly, and design?

01) Beautiful, brand

02) The battery voltage is limited. To obtain a higher voltage, it must connect multiple batteries in series.

03) Protect the battery, prevent short circuits, and prolong battery life

04) Size limitation

05) Easy to transport

06) Design of special functions, such as waterproof, unique appearance design, etc.

Three, battery performance and testing

17. What are the main aspects of the performance of the secondary battery in general?

It mainly includes voltage, internal resistance, capacity, energy density, internal pressure, self-discharge rate, cycle life, sealing performance, safety performance, storage performance, appearance, etc. There are also overcharge, over-discharge, and corrosion resistance.

18. What are the reliability test items of the battery?

01) Cycle life

02) Different rate discharge characteristics

03) Discharge characteristics at different temperatures

04) Charging characteristics

05) Self-discharge characteristics

06) Storage characteristics

07) Over-discharge characteristics

08) Internal resistance characteristics at different temperatures

09) Temperature cycle test

10) Drop test

11) Vibration test

12) Capacity test

13) Internal resistance test

14) GMS test

15) High and low-temperature impact test

16) Mechanical shock test

17) High temperature and high humidity test

19. What are the battery safety test items?

01) Short circuit test

02) Overcharge and over-discharge test

03) Withstand voltage test

04) Impact test

05) Vibration test

06) Heating test

07) Fire test

09) Variable temperature cycle test

10) Trickle charge test

11) Free drop test

12) low air pressure test

13) Forced discharge test

15) Electric heating plate test

17) Thermal shock test

19) Acupuncture test

20) Squeeze test

21) Heavy object impact test

20. What are the standard charging methods?

Charging method of Ni-MH battery:

01) Constant current charging: the charging current is a specific value in the whole charging process; this method is the most common;

02) Constant voltage charging: During the charging process, both ends of the charging power supply maintain a constant value, and the current in the circuit gradually decreases as the battery voltage increases;

03) Constant current and constant voltage charging: The battery is first charged with constant current (CC). When the battery voltage rises to a specific value, the voltage remains unchanged (CV), and the wind in the circuit drops to a small amount, eventually tending to zero.

Lithium battery charging method:

Constant current and constant voltage charging: The battery is first charged with constant current (CC). When the battery voltage rises to a specific value, the voltage remains unchanged (CV), and the wind in the circuit drops to a small amount, eventually tending to zero.

21. What is the standard charge and discharge of Ni-MH batteries?

The IEC international standard stipulates that the standard charging and discharging of nickel-metal hydride batteries is: first discharge the battery at 0.2C to 1.0V/piece, then charge at 0.1C for 16 hours, leave it for 1 hour, and put it at 0.2C to 1.0V/piece, that is To charge and discharge the battery standard.

22. What is pulse charging? What is the impact on battery performance?

Pulse charging generally uses charging and discharging, setting for 5 seconds and then releasing for 1 second. It will reduce most of the oxygen generated during the charging process to electrolytes under the discharge pulse. Not only does it limit the amount of internal electrolyte vaporization, but those old batteries that have been heavily polarized will gradually recover or approach the original capacity after 5-10 times of charging and discharging using this charging method.

23. What is trickle charging?

Trickle charging is used to make up for the capacity loss caused by the battery's self-discharge after it is fully charged. Generally, pulse current charging is used to achieve the above purpose.

24. What is charging efficiency?

Charging efficiency refers to a measure of the degree to which the electrical energy consumed by the battery during the charging process is converted into the chemical energy that the battery can store. It is mainly affected by the battery technology and the working environment temperature of the storm—generally, the higher the ambient temperature, the lower the charging efficiency.

25. What is discharge efficiency?

Discharge efficiency refers to the actual power discharged to the terminal voltage under certain discharge conditions to the rated capacity. It is mainly affected by the discharge rate, ambient temperature, internal resistance, and other factors. Generally, the higher the discharge rate, the higher the discharge rate. The lower the discharge efficiency. The lower the temperature, the lower the discharge efficiency.

26. What is the output power of the battery?

The output power of a battery refers to the ability to output energy per unit time. It is calculated based on the discharge current I and the discharge voltage, P=U*I, the unit is watts.

The lower the internal resistance of the battery, the higher the output power. The internal resistance of the battery should be less than the internal resistance of the electrical appliance. Otherwise, the battery itself consumes more power than the electrical appliance, which is uneconomical and may damage the battery.

27. What is the self-discharge of the secondary battery? What is the self-discharge rate of different types of batteries?

Self-discharge is also called charge retention capability, which refers to the retention capability of the battery's stored power under certain environmental conditions in an open circuit state. Generally speaking, self-discharge is mainly affected by manufacturing processes, materials, and storage conditions. Self-discharge is one of the main parameters to measure battery performance. Generally speaking, the lower the storage temperature of the battery, the lower the self-discharge rate, but it should also note that the temperature is too low or too high, which may damage the battery and become unusable.

After the battery is fully charged and left open for some time, a certain degree of self-discharge is average. The IEC standard stipulates that after fully charged, Ni-MH batteries should be left open for 28 days at a temperature of 20℃±5℃ and humidity of (65±20)%, and the 0.2C discharge capacity will reach 60% of the initial total.

28. What is a 24-hour self-discharge test?

The self-discharge test of lithium battery is:

Generally, 24-hour self-discharge is used to test its charge retention capacity quickly. The battery is discharged at 0.2C to 3.0V, constant current. Constant voltage is charged to 4.2V, cut-off current: 10mA, after 15 minutes of storage, discharge at 1C to 3.0 V test its discharge capacity C1, then set the battery with constant current and constant voltage 1C to 4.2V, cut-off current: 10mA, and measure 1C capacity C2 after being left for 24 hours. C2/C1*100% should be more significant than 99%.

29. What is the difference between the internal resistance of the charged state and the internal resistance of the discharged state?

The internal resistance in the charged state refers to the internal resistance when the battery is 100% fully charged; the internal resistance in the discharged state refers to the internal resistance after the battery is fully discharged.

Generally speaking, the internal resistance in the discharged state is not stable and is too large. The internal resistance in the charged state is more minor, and the resistance value is relatively stable. During the battery's use, only the charged state's internal resistance is of practical significance. In the later period of the battery's help, due to the exhaustion of the electrolyte and the reduction of the activity of internal chemical substances, the battery's internal resistance will increase to varying degrees.

30. What is static resistance? What is dynamic resistance?

The static internal resistance is the battery's internal resistance during discharging, and the dynamic internal resistance is the battery's internal resistance during charging.

31. Is the standard overcharge resistance test?

The IEC stipulates that the standard overcharge test for nickel-metal hydride batteries is:

Discharge the battery at 0.2C to 1.0V/piece, and charge it continuously at 0.1C for 48 hours. The battery should have no deformation or leakage. After overcharge, the discharge time from 0.2C to 1.0V should be more than 5 hours.

32. What is the IEC standard cycle life test?

IEC stipulates that the standard cycle life test of nickel-metal hydride batteries is:

After the battery is placed at 0.2C to 1.0V/pc

01) Charge at 0.1C for 16 hours, then discharge at 0.2C for 2 hours and 30 minutes (one cycle)

02) Charge at 0.25C for 3 hours and 10 minutes, and discharge at 0.25C for 2 hours and 20 minutes (2-48 cycles)

03) Charge at 0.25C for 3 hours and 10 minutes, and release to 1.0V at 0.25C (49th cycle)

04) Charge at 0.1C for 16 hours, put it aside for 1 hour, discharge at 0.2C to 1.0V (50th cycle). For nickel-metal hydride batteries, after repeating 400 cycles of 1-4, the 0.2C discharge time should be more significant than 3 hours; for nickel-cadmium batteries, repeating a total of 500 cycles of 1-4, the 0.2C discharge time should be more critical than 3 hours.

33. What is the internal pressure of the battery?

Refers to the internal air pressure of the battery, which is caused by the gas generated during the charging and discharging of the sealed battery and is mainly affected by battery materials, manufacturing processes, and battery structure. The main reason for this is that the gas generated by the decomposition of moisture and organic solution inside the battery accumulates. Generally, the internal pressure of the battery is maintained at an average level. In the case of overcharge or over-discharge, the internal pressure of the battery may increase:

For example, overcharge, positive electrode: 4OH--4e → 2H2O + O2↑; ①

The generated oxygen reacts with the hydrogen precipitated on the negative electrode to produce water 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O ②

If the speed of reaction ② is lower than that of reaction ①, the oxygen generated will not be consumed in time, which will cause the internal pressure of the battery to rise.

34. What is the standard charge retention test?

IEC stipulates that the standard charge retention test for nickel-metal hydride batteries is:

After putting the battery at 0.2C to 1.0V, charge it at 0.1C for 16 hours, store it at 20℃±5℃ and humidity of 65%±20%, keep it for 28 days, then discharge it to 1.0V at 0.2C, and Ni-MH batteries should be more than 3 hours.

The national standard stipulates that the standard charge retention test for lithium batteries is: (IEC has no relevant standards) the battery is placed at 0.2C to 3.0/piece, and then charged to 4.2V at a constant current and voltage of 1C, with a cut-off wind of 10mA and a temperature of 20 After storing for 28 days at ℃±5℃, discharge it to 2.75V at 0.2C and calculate the discharge capacity. Compared with the battery's nominal capacity, it should be no less than 85% of the initial total.

35. What is a short circuit test?

Use a wire with internal resistance ≤100mΩ to connect a fully charged battery's positive and negative poles in an explosion-proof box to short-circuit the positive and negative poles. The battery should not explode or catch fire.

36. What are the high temperature and high humidity tests?

The high temperature and humidity test of Ni-MH battery are:

After the battery is fully charged, store it under constant temperature and humidity conditions for several days, and observe no leakage during storage.

The high temperature and high humidity test of lithium battery is: (national standard)

Charge the battery with 1C constant current and constant voltage to 4.2V, cut-off current of 10mA, and then put it in a continuous temperature and humidity box at (40±2)℃ and relative humidity of 90%-95% for 48h, then take out the battery in (20 Leave it at ±5)℃ for two h. Observe that the appearance of the battery should be standard. Then discharge to 2.75V at a constant current of 1C, and then perform 1C charging and 1C discharge cycles at (20±5)℃ until the discharge capacity Not less than 85% of the initial total, but the number of cycles is not more than three times.

37. What is a temperature rise experiment?

After the battery is fully charged, put it into the oven and heat up from room temperature at a rate of 5°C/min. When the oven temperature reaches 130°C, keep it for 30 minutes. The battery should not explode or catch fire.

38. What is a temperature cycling experiment?

The temperature cycle experiment contains 27 cycles, and each process consists of the following steps:

01) The battery is changed from average temperature to 66±3℃, placed for 1 hour under the condition of 15±5%,

02) Switch to a temperature of 33±3°C and humidity of 90±5°C for 1 hour,

03) The condition is changed to -40±3℃ and placed for 1 hour

04) Put the battery at 25℃ for 0.5 hours

These four steps complete a cycle. After 27 cycles of experiments, the battery should have no leakage, alkali climbing, rust, or other abnormal conditions.

39. What is a drop test?

After the battery or battery pack is fully charged, it is dropped from a height of 1m to the concrete (or cement) ground three times to obtain shocks in random directions.

40. What is a vibration experiment?

The vibration test method of Ni-MH battery is:

After discharging the battery to 1.0V at 0.2C, charge it at 0.1C for 16 hours, and then vibrate under the following conditions after being left for 24 hours:

Amplitude: 0.8mm

Make the battery vibrate between 10HZ-55HZ, increasing or decreasing at a vibration rate of 1HZ every minute.

The battery voltage change should be within ±0.02V, and the internal resistance change should be within ±5mΩ. (Vibration time is 90min)

The lithium battery vibration test method is:

After the battery is discharged to 3.0V at 0.2C, it is charged to 4.2V with constant current and constant voltage at 1C, and the cut-off current is 10mA. After being left for 24 hours, it will vibrate under the following conditions:

The vibration experiment is carried out with the vibration frequency from 10 Hz to 60 Hz to 10 Hz in 5 minutes, and the amplitude is 0.06 inches. The battery vibrates in three-axis directions, and each axis shakes for half an hour.

The battery voltage change should be within ±0.02V, and the internal resistance change should be within ±5mΩ.

41. What is an impact test?

After the battery is fully charged, place a hard rod horizontally and drop a 20-pound object from a certain height on the hard rod. The battery should not explode or catch fire.

42. What is a penetration experiment?

After the battery is fully charged, pass a nail of a specific diameter through the storm's center and leave the pin in the battery. The battery should not explode or catch fire.

43. What is a fire experiment?

Place the fully charged battery on a heating device with a unique protective cover for fire, and no debris will pass through the protective cover.

Fourth, common battery problems and analysis

44. What certifications have the company's products passed?

It has passed the ISO9001:2000 quality system certification and ISO14001:2004 environmental protection system certification; the product has obtained the EU CE certification and North America UL certification, passed the SGS environmental protection test, and has obtained the patent license of Ovonic; at the same time, PICC has approved the company's products in the world Scope underwriting.

45. What is a Ready-To-Use battery?

The Ready-to-use battery is a new type of Ni-MH battery with a high charge retention rate launched by the company. It is a storage-resistant battery with the dual performance of a primary and secondary battery and can replace the primary battery. That is to say, the battery can be recycled and has a higher remaining power after storage for the same time as ordinary secondary Ni-MH batteries.

46. Why is Ready-To-Use (HFR) the ideal product to replace disposable batteries?

Compared with similar products, this product has the following remarkable features:

01) Smaller self-discharge;

02) Longer storage time;

03) Over-discharge resistance;

04) Long cycle life;

05) Especially when the battery voltage is lower than 1.0V, it has a good capacity recovery function;

More importantly, this type of battery has a charge retention rate of up to 75% when stored in an environment of 25°C for one year, so this battery is the ideal product to replace disposable batteries.

47. What are the precautions when using the battery?

01) Please read the battery manual carefully before use;

02) The electrical and battery contacts should be clean, wiped clean with a damp cloth if necessary, and installed according to the polarity mark after drying;

03) Do not mix old and new batteries, and different types of batteries of the same model can not be combined so as not to reduce the efficiency of use;

04) The disposable battery cannot be regenerated by heating or charging;

05) Do not short-circuit the battery;

06) Do not disassemble and heat the battery or throw the battery into the water;

07) When electrical appliances are not in use for a long time, it should remove the battery, and it should turn the switch off after use;

08) Do not discard waste batteries randomly, and separate them from other garbage as much as possible to avoid polluting the environment;

09) When there is no adult supervision, do not allow children to replace the battery. Small batteries should be placed out of the reach of children;

10) it should store the battery in a cool, dry place without direct sunlight.

48. What is the difference between various standard rechargeable batteries?

At present, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion rechargeable batteries are widely used in various portable electrical equipment (such as notebook computers, cameras, and mobile phones). Each rechargeable battery has its unique chemical properties. The main difference between nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries is that the energy density of nickel-metal hydride batteries is relatively high. Compared with batteries of the same type, the capacity of Ni-MH batteries is twice that of Ni-Cd batteries. This means that the use of nickel-metal hydride batteries can significantly extend the working time of the equipment when no additional weight is added to the electrical equipment. Another advantage of nickel-metal hydride batteries is that they significantly reduce the "memory effect" problem in cadmium batteries to use nickel-metal hydride batteries more conveniently. Ni-MH batteries are more environmentally friendly than Ni-Cd batteries because there are no toxic heavy metal elements inside. Li-ion has also quickly become a common power source for portable devices. Li-ion can provide the same energy as Ni-MH batteries but can reduce weight by about 35%, suitable for electrical equipment such as cameras and laptops. It is crucial. Li-ion has no "memory effect," The advantages of no toxic substances are also essential factors that make it a common power source.

It will significantly reduce the discharge efficiency of Ni-MH batteries at low temperatures. Generally, the charging efficiency will increase with the increase of temperature. However, when the temperature rises above 45°C, the performance of rechargeable battery materials at high temperatures will degrade, and it will significantly shorten the battery's cycle life.

49. What is the rate of discharge of the battery? What is the hourly rate of release of the storm?

Rate discharge refers to the rate relationship between the discharge current (A) and the rated capacity (A•h) during combustion. Hourly rate discharge refers to the hours required to discharge the rated capacity at a specific output current.

50. Why is it necessary to keep the battery warm when shooting in winter?

Since the battery in a digital camera has a low temperature, the active material activity is significantly reduced, which may not provide the camera's standard operating current, so outdoor shooting in areas with low temperature, especially.

Pay attention to the warmth of the camera or battery.

51. What is the operating temperature range of lithium-ion batteries?

Charge -10—45℃ Discharge -30—55℃

52. Can batteries of different capacities be combined?

If you mix new and old batteries with different capacities or use them together, there may be leakage, zero voltage, etc. This is due to the difference in power during the charging process, which causes some batteries to be overcharged during charging. Some batteries are not fully charged and have capacity during discharge. The high battery is not fully discharged, and the low capacity battery is over-discharged. In such a vicious circle, the battery is damaged, and leaks or has a low (zero) voltage.

53. What is an external short circuit, and what impact does it have on battery performance?

Connecting the outer two ends of the battery to any conductor will cause an external short circuit. The short course may bring about severe consequences for different battery types, such as electrolyte temperature rises, internal air pressure increases, etc. If the air pressure exceeds the withstand voltage of the battery cap, the battery will leak. This situation severely damages the battery. If the safety valve fails, it may even cause an explosion. Therefore, do not short-circuit the battery externally.

54. What are the main factors affecting battery life?

01) Charging:

When choosing a charger, it is best to use a charger with correct charging termination devices (such as anti-overcharge time devices, negative voltage difference (-V) cut-off charging, and anti-overheating induction devices) to avoid shortening the battery life due to overcharging. Generally speaking, slow charging can prolong the service life of the battery better than fast charging.

02) Discharge:

a. The depth of discharge is the main factor affecting battery life. The higher the depth of release, the shorter the battery life. In other words, as long as the depth of discharge is reduced, it can significantly extend the battery's service life. Therefore, we should avoid over-discharging the battery to a very low voltage.

b. When the battery is discharged at a high temperature, it will shorten its service life.

c. If the designed electronic equipment cannot completely stop all current, if the equipment is left unused for a long time without taking out the battery, the residual current will sometimes cause the battery to be excessively consumed, causing the storm to over-discharge.

d. When using batteries with different capacities, chemical structures, or different charge levels, as well as batteries of various old and new types, the batteries will discharge too much and even cause reverse polarity charging.

03) Storage:

If the battery is stored at a high temperature for a long time, it will attenuate its electrode activity and shorten its service life.

55. Can the battery be stored in the appliance after it is used up or if it is not used for a long time?

If it will not use the electrical appliance for an extended period, it is best to remove the battery and put it in a low-temperature, dry place. If not, even if the electrical appliance is turned off, the system will still make the battery have a low current output, which will shorten The service life of the storm.

56. What are the better conditions for battery storage? Do I need to charge the battery for long-term storage fully?

According to the IEC standard, it should store the battery at a temperature of 20℃±5℃ and humidity of (65±20)%. Generally speaking, the higher the storage temperature of the storm, the lower the remaining rate of capacity, and vice versa, the best place to store the battery when the refrigerator temperature is 0℃-10℃, especially for primary batteries. Even if the secondary battery loses its capacity after storage, it can be recovered as long as it is recharged and discharged several times.

In theory, there is always energy loss when the battery is stored. The inherent electrochemical structure of the battery determines that the battery capacity is inevitably lost, mainly due to self-discharge. Usually, the self-discharge size is related to the solubility of the positive electrode material in the electrolyte and its instability (accessible to self-decompose) after being heated. The self-discharge of rechargeable batteries is much higher than that of primary batteries.

If you want to store the battery for a long time, it is best to put it in a dry and low-temperature environment and keep the remaining battery power at about 40%. Of course, it is best to take out the battery once a month to ensure the excellent storage condition of the storm, but not to completely drain the battery and damage the battery.

57. What is a standard battery?

A battery that is internationally prescribed as a standard for measuring potential (potential). It was invented by American electrical engineer E. Weston in 1892, so it is also called Weston battery.

The positive electrode of the standard battery is the mercury sulfate electrode, the negative electrode is cadmium amalgam metal (containing 10% or 12.5% cadmium), and the electrolyte is acidic, saturated cadmium sulfate aqueous solution, which is saturated cadmium sulfate and mercurous sulfate aqueous solution.

58. What are the possible reasons for the zero voltage or low voltage of the single battery?

01) External short circuit or overcharge or reverse charge of the battery (forced over-discharge);

02) The battery is continuously overcharged by high-rate and high-current, which causes the battery core to expand, and the positive and negative electrodes are directly contacted and short-circuited;

03) The battery is short-circuited or slightly short-circuited. For example, improper placement of the positive and negative poles causes the pole piece to contact the short circuit, positive electrode contact, etc.

59. What are the possible reasons for the zero voltage or low voltage of the battery pack?

01) Whether a single battery has zero voltage;

02) The plug is short-circuited or disconnected, and the connection to the plug is not good;

03) Desoldering and virtual welding of lead wire and battery;

04) The internal connection of the battery is incorrect, and the connection sheet and the battery are leaked, soldered, and unsoldered, etc.;

05) The electronic components inside the battery are incorrectly connected and damaged.

60. What are the control methods to prevent battery overcharging?

To prevent the battery from being overcharged, it is necessary to control the charging endpoint. When the battery is complete, there will be some unique information that it can use to judge whether the charging has reached the endpoint. Generally, there are the following six methods to prevent the battery from being overcharged:

01) Peak voltage control: Determine the end of charging by detecting the peak voltage of the battery;

02) dT/DT control: Determine the end of charging by detecting the peak temperature change rate of the battery;

03) △T control: When the battery is fully charged, the difference between the temperature and the ambient temperature will reach the maximum;

04) -△V control: When the battery is fully charged and reaches a peak voltage, the voltage will drop by a particular value;

05) Timing control: control the endpoint of charging by setting a specific charging time, generally set the time required to charge 130% of the nominal capacity to handle;

61. What are the possible reasons why the battery or battery pack cannot be charged?

01) Zero-voltage battery or zero-voltage battery in the battery pack;

02) The battery pack is disconnected, the internal electronic components and the protection circuit is abnormal;

03) The charging equipment is faulty, and there is no output current;

04) External factors cause the charging efficiency to be too low (such as extremely low or extremely high temperature).

62. What are the possible reasons why it cannot discharge batteries and battery packs?

01) The life of the battery will decrease after storage and use;

02) Insufficient charging or not charging;

03) The ambient temperature is too low;

04) The discharge efficiency is low. For example, when a large current is discharged, an ordinary battery cannot discharge electricity because the diffusion speed of the internal substance cannot keep up with the reaction speed, resulting in a sharp voltage drop.

63. What are the possible reasons for the short discharge time of batteries and battery packs?

01) The battery is not fully charged, such as insufficient charging time, low charging efficiency, etc.;

02) Excessive discharge current reduces the discharge efficiency and shortens the discharge time;

03) When the battery is discharged, the ambient temperature is too low, and the discharge efficiency decreases;

64. What is overcharging, and how does it affect battery performance?

Overcharge refers to the behavior of the battery being fully charged after a specific charging process and then continuing to charge. The Ni-MH battery overcharge produces the following reactions:

Positive electrode: 4OH--4e → 2H2O + O2↑;①

Negative electrode: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O ②

Since the capacity of the negative electrode is higher than the capacity of the positive electrode in the design, the oxygen generated by the positive electrode is combined with the hydrogen generated by the negative electrode through the separator paper. Therefore, the internal pressure of the battery will not increase significantly under normal circumstances, but if the charging current is too large, Or if the charging time is too long, the generated oxygen is too late to be consumed, which may cause internal pressure to rise, battery deformation, liquid leakage, and other undesirable phenomena. At the same time, it will significantly reduce its electrical performance.

65. What is over-discharge, and how does it affect battery performance?

After the battery has discharged the internally stored power, after the voltage reaches a specific value, the continued discharge will cause over-discharge. The discharge cut-off voltage is usually determined according to the discharge current. 0.2C-2C blast is generally set to 1.0V/branch, 3C or more, such as 5C, or The 10C discharge is set to 0.8V/piece. Over-discharge of the battery may bring catastrophic consequences to the battery, especially high-current over-discharge or repeated over-discharge, which will significantly impact the battery. Generally speaking, over-discharge will increase the battery's internal voltage and the positive and negative active materials. The reversibility is destroyed, even if it is charged, it can partially restore it, and the capacity will be significantly attenuated.

66. What are the main reasons for the expansion of rechargeable batteries?

01) Poor battery protection circuit;

02) The battery cell expands without protection function;

03) The performance of the charger is poor, and the charging current is too large, causing the battery to swell;

04) The battery is continuously overcharged by high rate and high current;

05) The battery is forced to over-discharge;

06) The problem of battery design.

67. What is the explosion of the battery? How to prevent battery explosion?

The solid matter in any part of the battery is discharged instantaneously and pushed to a distance of more than 25cm from the storm, called an explosion. The general means of prevention are:

01) Don't charge or short circuit;

02) Use better-charging equipment for charging;

03) The vent holes of the battery must always be kept unblocked;

04) Pay attention to heat dissipation when using the battery;

05) It is forbidden to mix different types, new and old batteries.

68. What are the types of battery protection components and their respective advantages and disadvantages?

The following table is the performance comparison of several standard battery protection components:

Thermal switchPTCHigh current protection of battery packQuickly sense the current and temperature changes in the circuit, if the temperature is too high or the current is too high, the temperature of the bimetal in the switch can reach the rated value of the button, and the metal will trip, which can protect the battery and electrical appliances.The metal sheet may not reset after tripping, causing the battery pack voltage to fail to work.
Overcurrent protectorPTCBattery pack overcurrent protectionAs the temperature rises, the resistance of this device increases linearly. When the current or temperature rises to a specific value, the resistance value changes suddenly (increases) so that the recent changes to mA level. When the temperature drops, it will return to normal. It can be used as a battery connection piece to string into the battery pack.Higher price
fuseSensing circuit current and temperatureWhen the current in the circuit exceeds the rated value or the battery's temperature rises to a specific value, the fuse blows to disconnect the circuit to protect the battery pack and electrical appliances from damage.After the fuse is blown, it cannot be restored and needs to be replaced in time, which is troublesome.

69. What is a portable battery?

Portable, which means easy to carry and easy to use. Portable batteries are mainly used to provide power to mobile, cordless devices. Larger batteries (e.g., 4 kg or more) are not portable batteries. A typical portable battery today is about a few hundred grams.

The family of portable batteries includes primary batteries and rechargeable batteries (secondary batteries). Button batteries belong to a particular group of them.

70. What are the characteristics of rechargeable portable batteries?

Every battery is an energy converter. It can directly convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. For rechargeable batteries, this process can be described as follows:

  • The conversion of electrical power into chemical energy during the charging process → 
  • The transformation of chemical energy into electrical energy during the discharge process → 
  • The change of electrical power into chemical energy during the charging process

It can cycle the secondary battery more than 1,000 times in this way.

There are rechargeable portable batteries in different electrochemical types, lead-acid type (2V/piece), nickel-cadmium type (1.2V/piece), nickel-hydrogen type (1.2V/essay), lithium-ion battery (3.6V/piece) ); the typical feature of these types of batteries is that they have a relatively constant discharge voltage (a voltage plateau during discharge), and the voltage decays quickly at the beginning and the end of the release.

71. Can any charger be used for rechargeable portable batteries?

No, because any charger only corresponds to a specific charging process and can only compare to a particular electrochemical method, such as lithium-ion, lead-acid or Ni-MH batteries. They have not only different voltage characteristics but also different charging modes. Only the specially developed fast charger can make the Ni-MH battery get the most suitable charging effect. Slow chargers can be used when needed, but they need more time. It should note that although some chargers have qualified labels, you should be careful when using them as chargers for batteries in different electrochemical systems. Qualified labels only indicate that the device complies with European electrochemical standards or other national standards. This label does not give any information about what type of battery it is suitable for. It is not possible to charge Ni-MH batteries with inexpensive chargers. Satisfactory results will be obtained, and there are dangers. This should also be paid attention to for other types of battery chargers.

72. Can a rechargeable 1.2V portable battery replace the 1.5V alkaline manganese battery?

The voltage range of alkaline manganese batteries during discharge is between 1.5V and 0.9V, while the constant voltage of the rechargeable battery is 1.2V/branch when discharged. This voltage is roughly equal to the average voltage of an alkaline manganese battery. Therefore, rechargeable batteries are used instead of alkaline manganese. Batteries are feasible, and vice versa.

73. What are the advantages and disadvantages of rechargeable batteries?

The advantage of rechargeable batteries is that they have a long service life. Even if they are more expensive than primary batteries, they are very economical from the point of view of long-term use. The load capacity of rechargeable batteries is higher than that of most primary batteries. However, the discharge voltage of ordinary secondary batteries is constant, and it is difficult to predict when the discharge will end so that it will cause certain inconveniences during use. However, lithium-ion batteries can provide camera equipment with a longer use time, high load capacity, high energy density, and the drop in discharge voltage weaken with the depth of discharge.

Ordinary secondary batteries have a high self-discharge rate, suitable for high current discharge applications such as digital cameras, toys, electric tools, emergency lights, etc. They are not ideal for small-current long-term discharge occasions such as remote controls, music doorbells, etc. Places that are not suitable for long-term intermittent use, such as flashlights. At present, the ideal battery is the lithium battery, which has almost all the advantages of the storm, and the self-discharge rate is meager. The only disadvantage is that the charging and discharging requirements are very strict, guaranteeing life.

74. What are the advantages of NiMH batteries? What are the benefits of lithium-ion batteries?

The advantages of NiMH batteries are:

01) low cost;

02) Good fast charging performance;

03) Long cycle life;

04) No memory effect;

05) no pollution, green battery;

06) Wide temperature range;

07) Good safety performance.

The advantages of lithium-ion batteries are:

01) High energy density;

02) High working voltage;

03) No memory effect;

04) Long cycle life;

05) no pollution;

06) Lightweight;

07) Small self-discharge.

75. What are the advantages of lithium iron phosphate batteries?

The main application direction of lithium iron phosphate batteries is power batteries, and its advantages are mainly reflected in the following aspects:

01) Super long life;

02) Safe to use;

03) Fast charge and discharge with the large current;

04) High-temperature resistance;

05) Large capacity;

06) No memory effect;

07) Small size and lightweight;

08) Green and environmental protection.

76. What are the advantages of lithium polymer batteries?

01) There is no battery leakage problem. The battery does not contain a liquid electrolyte and uses colloidal solids;

02) Thin batteries can be made: With a capacity of 3.6V and 400mAh, the thickness can be as thin as 0.5mm;

03) The battery can be designed into a variety of shapes;

04) The battery can be bent and deformed: the polymer battery can be bent up to about 900;

05) Can be made into a single high-voltage battery: liquid electrolyte batteries can only be connected in series to obtain high-voltage, polymer batteries;

06) Since there is no liquid, it can make it into a multi-layer combination in a single particle to achieve high voltage;

07) The capacity will be twice as high as that of a lithium-ion battery of the same size.

77. What is the principle of the charger? What are the main types?

The charger is a static converter device that uses power electronic semiconductor devices to convert alternating current with a constant voltage and frequency into a direct current. There are many chargers, such as lead-acid battery chargers, valve-regulated sealed lead-acid battery testing, monitoring, nickel-cadmium battery chargers, nickel-hydrogen battery chargers, and lithium-ion batteries battery chargers, lithium-ion battery chargers for portable electronic devices, Lithium-ion battery protection circuit multi-function charger, electric vehicle battery charger, etc.

Five, battery types and application areas

78. How to classify batteries?

Chemical battery:

Primary batteries-carbon-zinc dry batteries, alkaline-manganese batteries, lithium batteries, activation batteries, zinc-mercury batteries, cadmium-mercury batteries, zinc-air batteries, zinc- Silver batteries, and solid electrolyte batteries (silver-iodine batteries), etc.

Secondary batteries-lead batteries, Ni-Cd batteries, Ni-MH batteries, Li-ion batteries, sodium-sulfur batteries, etc.

Other batteries-fuel cell batteries, air batteries, thin batteries, light batteries, nano batteries, etc.

Physical battery:-solar cell (solar cell)

79. What battery will dominate the battery market?

As cameras, mobile phones, cordless phones, notebook computers, and other multimedia devices with images or sounds occupy more and more critical positions in household appliances, compared with primary batteries, secondary batteries are also widely used in these fields. The secondary rechargeable battery will develop in small size, lightweight, high capacity, and intelligence.

80. What is an intelligent secondary battery?

A chip is installed in the intelligent battery, which provides power to the device and controls its primary functions. This type of battery can also display the residual capacity, the number of cycles that have been cycled, and the temperature. However, there is no intelligent battery on the market. Will will occupy a significant market position in the future, especially in camcorders, cordless phones, mobile phones, and notebook computers.

81. What is a paper battery?

A paper battery is a new type of battery; its components also include electrodes, electrolytes, and separators. Specifically, this new type of paper battery is composed of cellulose paper implanted with electrodes and electrolytes, and the cellulose paper acts as a separator. The electrodes are carbon nanotubes added to cellulose and metallic lithium covered on a film made of cellulose, and the electrolyte is a lithium hexafluorophosphate solution. This battery can be folded and is only as thick as paper. Researchers believe that due to the many properties of this paper battery, it will become a new type of energy storage device.

82. What is a photovoltaic cell?

Photocell is a semiconductor element that generates electromotive force under the irradiation of light. There are many types of photovoltaic cells, such as selenium photovoltaic cells, silicon photovoltaic cells, thallium sulfide, and silver sulfide photovoltaic cells. They are mainly used in instrumentation, automatic telemetry, and remote control. Some photovoltaic cells can directly convert solar energy into electrical energy. This kind of photovoltaic cell is also called a solar cell.

83. What is a solar cell? What are the advantages of solar cells?

Solar cells are devices that convert light energy (mainly sunlight) into electrical energy. The principle is the photovoltaic effect; that is, the built-in electric field of the PN junction separates the photo-generated carriers to the two sides of the junction to generate a photovoltaic voltage and connects to an external circuit to make the power output. The power of solar cells is related to the intensity of light—the more robust the morning, the stronger the power output.

The solar system is easy to install, easy to expand, disassemble, and has other advantages. At the same time, the use of solar energy is also very economical, and there is no energy consumption during the operation. In addition, this system is resistant to mechanical abrasion; a solar system needs reliable solar cells to receive and store solar energy. General solar cells have the following advantages:

01) High charge absorption capacity;

02) Long cycle life;

03) Good rechargeable performance;

04) No maintenance required.

84. What is a fuel cell? How to classify?

A fuel cell is an electrochemical system that directly converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

The most common classification method is based on the type of electrolyte. Based on this, fuel cells can be divided into alkaline fuel cells. Generally, potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte; phosphoric acid type fuel cells, which use concentrated phosphoric acid as the electrolyte; proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Use perfluorinated or partially fluorinated sulfonic acid type proton exchange membrane as electrolyte; molten carbonate type fuel cell, using molten lithium-potassium carbonate or lithium-sodium carbonate as electrolyte; solid oxide fuel cell, Use stable oxides as oxygen ion conductors, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes as electrolytes. Sometimes the batteries are classified according to the battery temperature, and they are divided into low temperature (working temperature below 100℃) fuel cells, including alkaline fuel cells and proton exchange membrane fuel cells; medium temperature fuel cells (the working temperature at 100-300℃), including Bacon type alkaline fuel cell and phosphoric acid type fuel cell; high-temperature fuel cell (the operating temperature at 600-1000℃), including molten carbonate fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell.

85. Why do fuel cells have excellent development potential?

In the past decade or two, the United States has paid particular attention to the development of fuel cells. In contrast, Japan has vigorously carried out technological development based on the introduction of American technology. The fuel cell has attracted the attention of some developed countries mainly because it has the following advantages:

01) High efficiency. Because the chemical energy of the fuel is directly converted into electrical energy, without thermal energy conversion in the middle, the conversion efficiency is not limited by the thermodynamic Carnot cycle; because there is no mechanical energy conversion, it can avoid automatic transmission loss, and the conversion efficiency does not depend on the scale of power generation And change, so the fuel cell has a higher conversion efficiency;

02) Low noise and low pollution. In converting chemical energy into electrical energy, the fuel cell has no mechanical moving parts, but the control system has some small features, so it is low noise. In addition, fuel cells are also a low-pollution energy source. Take the phosphoric acid fuel cell as an example; the sulfur oxides and nitrides it emits are two orders of magnitude lower than the standards set by the United States;

03) Strong adaptability. Fuel cells can use a variety of hydrogen-containing fuels, such as methane, methanol, ethanol, biogas, petroleum gas, natural gas, and synthetic gas. The oxidizer is inexhaustible and inexhaustible air. It can make fuel cells into standard components with a specific power (such as 40 kilowatts), assembled into different strengths and types according to users' needs, and installed in the most convenient place. If necessary, it can also be established as a large power station and used in conjunction with the conventional power supply system, which will help regulate the electric load;

04) Short construction period and easy maintenance. After the industrial production of fuel cells, it can continuously produce various standard components of power generation devices in factories. It is easy to transport and can be assembled on-site at the power station. Someone estimated that the maintenance of a 40-kilowatt phosphoric acid fuel cell is only 25% of that of a diesel generator of the same power.

Because fuel cells have so many advantages, the United States and Japan attach great importance to their development.

86. What is a nano battery?

Nano is 10-9 meters, and nano-battery is a battery made of nanomaterials (such as nano-MnO2, LiMn2O4, Ni(OH)2, etc.). Nanomaterials have unique microstructures and physical and chemical properties (such as quantum size effects, surface effects, tunnel quantum effects, etc.). At present, the domestically mature nano battery is the nano-activated carbon fiber battery. They are mainly used in electric vehicles, electric motorcycles, and electric mopeds. This kind of battery can be recharged for 1,000 cycles and used continuously for about ten years. It only takes about 20 minutes to charge at a time, the flat road travel is 400km, and the weight is 128kg, which has surpassed the level of battery cars in the United States, Japan, and other countries. The nickel-metal hydride batteries need about 6-8 hours to charge, and the flat road travels 300km.

87. What is a plastic lithium-ion battery?

At present, the plastic lithium-ion battery refers to the use of ion-conducting polymer as an electrolyte. This polymer can be dry or colloidal.

88. Which equipment is best used for rechargeable batteries?

Rechargeable batteries are particularly suitable for electrical equipment requiring relatively high energy supply or equipment requiring sizeable current discharge, such as single portable players, CD players, small radios, electronic games, electric toys, household appliances, professional cameras, mobile phones, Cordless phones, notebook computers and other devices that require higher energy. It is best not to use rechargeable batteries for equipment that is not commonly used because the self-discharge of rechargeable batteries is relatively large. Still, if the equipment needs to be discharged with a high current, it must use rechargeable batteries. Generally, users should choose suitable equipment according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer. Battery.

89. What are the voltages and application areas of different types of batteries?

SLI (engine)6V or higherAutomobiles, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, etc.
lithium battery6VCamera etc.
Lithium Manganese Button Battery3VPocket calculators, watches, remote control devices, etc.
Silver Oxygen Button Battery1.55VWatches, small clocks, etc.
Alkaline manganese round battery1.5VPortable video equipment, cameras, game consoles, etc.
Alkaline manganese button battery1.5VPocket calculator, electric equipment, etc.
Zinc Carbon Round Battery1.5VAlarms, flashing lights, toys, etc.
Zinc-air button battery1.4VHearing aids, etc.
MnO2 button battery1.35VHearing aids, cameras, etc.
Nickel-cadmium batteries1.2VElectric tools, portable cameras, mobile phones, cordless phones, electric toys, emergency lights, electric bicycles, etc.
NiMH batteries1.2VMobile phones, cordless phones, portable cameras, notebooks, emergency lights, household appliances, etc.
Lithium Ion Battery3.6VMobile phones, notebook computers, etc.

90. What are the types of rechargeable batteries? Which equipment is suitable for each?

Ni-MH round batteryHigh capacity, environmentally friendly (without mercury, lead, cadmium), overcharge protectionAudio equipment, video recorders, mobile phones, cordless phones, emergency lights, notebook computers
Ni-MH prismatic batteryHigh capacity, environmental protection, overcharge protectionAudio equipment, video recorders, mobile phones, cordless phones, emergency lights, laptops
Ni-MH button batteryHigh capacity, environmental protection, overcharge protectionMobile phones, cordless phones
Nickel-cadmium round batteryHigh load capacityAudio equipment, power tools
Nickel-cadmium button batteryHigh load capacityCordless phone, memory
Lithium Ion BatteryHigh load capacity, high energy densityMobile phones, laptops, video recorders
Lead-acid batteriesCheap price, convenient processing, low life, heavy weightShips, automobiles, miner's lamps, etc.

91. What are the types of batteries used in emergency lights?

01) Sealed Ni-MH battery;

02) Adjustable valve lead-acid battery;

03) Other types of batteries can also be used if they meet the relevant safety and performance standards of the IEC 60598 (2000) (emergency light part) standard (emergency light part).

92. How long is the service life of rechargeable batteries used in cordless phones?

Under regular use, the service life is 2-3 years or longer. When the following conditions occur, the battery needs to be replaced:

01) After charging, the talk time is shorter than once;

02) The call signal is not clear enough, the receiving effect is very vague, and the noise is loud;

03) The distance between the cordless phone and the base needs to be getting closer; that is, the range of use of the cordless telephone is getting narrower and narrower.

93. Which it can use a type of battery for remote control devices?

It can only use the remote control by ensuring that the battery is in its fixed position. Different types of zinc-carbon batteries can be used in other remote control devices. The IEC standard instructions can identify them. The commonly used batteries are AAA, AA, and 9V large batteries. It is also a better choice to use alkaline batteries. This type of battery can provide twice the working time of a zinc-carbon battery. They can also be identified by IEC standards (LR03, LR6, 6LR61). However, because the remote control device only needs a small current, the zinc-carbon battery is economical to use.

It can also use rechargeable secondary batteries in principle, but they are used in remote control devices. Due to the high self-discharge rate of secondary batteries needs to be recharged repeatedly, so this type of battery is not practical.

94. What types of battery products are there? Which application areas are they suitable for?

The application areas of NiMH batteries include but are not limited to:

Electric bicycles, cordless phones, electric toys, electric tools, emergency lights, household appliances, instruments, miners' lamps, walkie-talkies.

The application areas of lithium-ion batteries include but are not limited to:

Electric bicycles, remote control toy cars, mobile phones, notebook computers, various mobile devices, small disc players, small video cameras, digital cameras, walkie-talkies.

Sixth, battery, and environment

95. What impact does the battery have on the environment?

Almost all batteries today do not contain mercury, but heavy metals are still an essential part of mercury batteries, rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries, and lead-acid batteries. If mishandled and in large quantities, these heavy metals will hurt the environment. At present, there are specialized agencies in the world to recycle manganese oxide, nickel-cadmium, and lead-acid batteries, for example, non-profit organization RBRC company.

96. What is the impact of ambient temperature on battery performance?

Among all environmental factors, the temperature has the most significant impact on the charge and discharge performance of the battery. The electrochemical reaction at the electrode/electrolyte interface is related to the ambient temperature, and the electrode/electrolyte interface is regarded as the heart of the battery. If the temperature drops, the reaction rate of the electrode also drops. Assuming that the battery voltage remains constant and the discharge current decreases, the battery's power output will also decrease. If the temperature rises, the opposite is true; the battery output power will increase. Temperature also affects the transfer speed of the electrolyte. The temperature rise will speed up the transmission, the temperature drop will slow down the information, and the battery charge and discharge performance will also be affected. However, if the temperature is too high, exceeding 45°C, it will destroy the chemical balance in the battery and cause side reactions.

97. What is a green battery?

Green environmental protection battery refers to a type of high-performance, pollution-free hail that has been used in recent years or is being researched and developed. At present, metal hydride nickel batteries, lithium-ion batteries, mercury-free alkaline zinc-manganese primary batteries, rechargeable batteries that have been widely used, and lithium or lithium-ion plastic batteries and fuel cells that are being researched and developed fall into this category. One category. In addition, solar cells (also known as photovoltaic power generation) that have been widely used and use solar energy for photoelectric conversion can also be included in this category.

Technology Co., Ltd. has been committed to researching and supplying environmentally friendly batteries (Ni-MH, Li-ion). Our products meet the ROTHS standard requirements from internal battery materials (positive and negative electrodes) to external packaging materials.

98. What are the "green batteries" currently being used and researched?

A new type of green and environmentally friendly battery refers to a kind of high-performance. This non-polluting battery has been put into use or is being developed in recent years. At present, lithium-ion batteries, metal hydride nickel batteries, and mercury-free alkaline zinc-manganese batteries have been widely used, as well as lithium-ion plastic batteries, combustion batteries, and electrochemical energy storage supercapacitors that are being developed are all new types—the category of green batteries. In addition, solar cells that utilize solar energy for photoelectric conversion have been widely used.

99. Where are the main hazards of used batteries?

The waste batteries that are harmful to human health and the ecological environment and listed in the hazardous waste control list mainly include mercury-containing batteries, especially mercury oxide batteries; lead-acid batteries: cadmium-containing batteries, specifically nickel-cadmium batteries. Due to the littering of waste batteries, these batteries will pollute the soil, waters and cause harm to human health by eating vegetables, fish, and other foodstuffs.

100. What are the ways for waste batteries to pollute the environment?

The constituent materials of these batteries are sealed inside the battery case during use and will not affect the environment. However, after long-term mechanical wear and corrosion, heavy metals and acids, and alkalis inside leak out, enter the soil or water sources and enter the human food chain through various routes. The whole process is briefly described as follows: soil or water source-microorganisms-animals-circulating dust-crops-food-human body-nerves-deposition and disease. The heavy metals ingested from the environment by other water-sourced plant food digestion organisms can undergo biomagnification in the food chain, accumulate in thousands of higher-level organisms step by step, enter the human body through food, and accumulate in specific organs. Cause chronic poisoning.


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