In 1952, Archer John Porter Martin (U.K.), Richard Lawrence Millington Singer (UK): "Invented the partition chromatography."
1953, Hermann Staudinger (West Germany): "Research findings in the field of polymer chemistry."
1954, Linus Pauling (USA): "The study of the properties of chemical bonds and its application in the elaboration of the structure of complex substances."
In 1955, Vincent Divinho (USA): "Research on sulfur-containing compounds of biochemical importance, especially the synthesis of peptide hormones for the first time."
In 1956, Cyril Hinshelwood (U.K.) and Nikolai Semenov (Soviet Union): "Research on the mechanism of chemical reactions."
1957, Alexander R. Todd (U.K.): "Works in the study of nucleotides and nucleotide coenzymes."
1958, Frederick Sanger (U.K.): "The study of protein structure and composition, especially the study of insulin."
In 1959, Jaroslav Herovsky (Czech Republic): "discovered and developed the polarographic analysis method."
In 1960, Willard Libby (United States): "Developed a method for dating using carbon 14 isotope, which is widely used in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other disciplines."
1961, Melvin Calvin (United States): "Research on the absorption of carbon dioxide by plants."
In 1962, Max Perutz UK and John Kendrew UK "research on the structure of spherical proteins."
1963, Carl Ziegler (West Germany), Gurio Natta (Italy): "Research findings in the field of polymer chemistry and technology."
In 1964, Dorothy Crawford Hodgkin (U.K.): "Using X-ray technology to analyze the structure of some important biochemical substances."
In 1965, Robert Burns Woodward (USA): "Outstanding Achievement in Organic Synthesis."
1966, Robert Mulliken (USA): "Basic research on chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules using the molecular orbital method."
In 1967, Manfred Eigen (West Germany), Ronald George Rayford Norris (U.K.), George Porter (UK): "Using a short energy pulse to balance the reaction The method of perturbation, the study of high-speed chemical reactions."
In 1968, Lars Onsager (USA): "discovered the reciprocal relationship named after him, laying the foundation for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes."
In 1969, Derek Barton (U.K.), Odd Hassel (Norway): "Developed the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry."
In 1970, Luiz Federico Leloire (Argentina): "discovered sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates."
1971, Gerhard Herzberg (Canada): "Research on the electronic structure and geometry of molecules, especially free radicals."
1972, Christian B. Anfinson (United States): "Research on ribonuclease, especially the study of the relationship between its amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation";
Stanford Moore (United States), William Howard Stein (United States): "Study on the relationship between the catalytic activity of the active center of the ribonuclease molecule and its chemical structure."
In 1973, Ernst Otto Fischer (West Germany) and Jeffrey Wilkinson (U.K.): "Pioneering research on the chemical properties of metal-organic compounds, also known as sandwich compounds."
1974, Paul Flory (USA): "Basic research on the theory and experiment of polymer physical chemistry."
1975, John Conforth (U.K.): "Study on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions."
Vladimir Prelog (Switzerland): "Study on the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions";
1976, William Lipscomb (United States): "The study of the structure of borane explained the problem of chemical bonding."
In 1977, Ilya Prigogine (Belgium): "Contribution to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, especially the theory of dissipative structure."
In 1978, Peter Mitchell (U.K.): "Using the theoretical formula of chemical permeation to contribute to the understanding of biological energy transfer."
In 1979, Herbert Brown (USA) and Georg Wittig (West Germany): "Developed boron-containing and phosphorus-containing compounds as important reagents in organic synthesis, respectively."
In 1980, Paul Berg (United States): "The study of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, especially the study of recombinant DNA";
Walter Gilbert (U.S.), Frederick Sanger (U.K.): "Methods for Determining DNA Base Sequences in Nucleic Acids."
In 1981, Kenichi Fukui (Japan) and Rod Hoffman (USA): "Explain the occurrence of chemical reactions through their independent development of theories."
In 1982, Aaron Kluger (U.K.): "Developed crystal electron microscopy and studied the structure of nucleic acid-protein complexes with important biological significance."
In 1983, Henry Taub (USA): "Research on the mechanism of electron transfer reactions especially in metal complexes."
In 1984, Robert Bruce Merrifield (USA): "Developed a solid-phase chemical synthesis method."
In 1985, Herbert Hauptman (United States), Jerome Carr (United States): "Outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for determining crystal structure."
In 1986, Dudley Hirschbach (United States), Li Yuanzhe (United States), John Charles Polanyi (Canada): "Contributions to the study of the kinetic process of elementary chemical reactions."
In 1987, Donald Kramm (United States), Jean-Marie Lane (France), Charles Pedersen (United States): "Developed and used molecules capable of highly selective structure-specific interactions."
In 1988, John Dysenhofer (West Germany), Robert Huber (West Germany), Hartmut Michel (West Germany): "Determination of the three-dimensional structure of the photosynthetic reaction center."
In 1989, Sydney Altman (Canada), Thomas Cech (USA): "discovered the catalytic properties of RNA."
In 1990, Elias James Corey (United States): "Developed the theory and methodology of organic synthesis."
1991, Richard Ernst (Switzerland): "Contribution to the development of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods."
In 1992, Rudolph Marcus (USA): "Contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems."
In 1993, Kelly Mullis (USA): "Developed DNA-based chemical research methods and developed the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)";
Michael Smith (Canada): "Developed DNA-based chemical research methods, and contributed to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based site-directed mutagenesis and its fundamental contribution to the development of protein research."
In 1994, George Andrew Euler (United States): "Contributions to the research of carbocation chemistry."
In 1995, Paul Crutzen (Netherlands), Mario Molina (U.S.), Frank Sherwood Rowland (U.S.): "Research on atmospheric chemistry, especially research on the formation and decomposition of ozone."
1996 Robert Cole (United States), Harold Kroto (United Kingdom), Richard Smalley (United States): "Discover fullerene."
In 1997, Paul Boyer (USA), John Walker (UK), Jens Christian Sko (Denmark): "Clarified the enzymatic catalytic mechanism in the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)."
In 1998, Walter Cohen (USA): "founded density functional theory";
John Pope (UK): Developed computational methods in quantum chemistry.
In 1999, Yamid Ziwell (Egypt): "Study on the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy."
In 2000, Alan Haig (United States), McDelmead (United States), Hideki Shirakawa (Japan): "discovered and developed conductive polymers."
In 2001, William Standish Knowles (U.S.) and Noyori Ryoji (Japan): "Research on Chiral Catalytic Hydrogenation";
Barry Sharpless (USA): "Study on Chiral Catalytic Oxidation."
In 2002, John Bennett Finn (USA) and Koichi Tanaka (Japan): "Developed methods for identification and structural analysis of biological macromolecules, and established a soft desorption ionization method for mass spectrometry analysis of biological macromolecules" ;
Kurt Wittrich (Switzerland): "Developed methods for identification and structural analysis of biological macromolecules, and established a method for analyzing the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy."
In 2003, Peter Agre (USA): "The study of ion channels in cell membranes found water channels";
Roderick McKinnon (United States): "The study of ion channels in cell membranes, the study of ion channel structure and mechanism."
In 2004, Aaron Chehanovo (Israel), Avram Hershko (Israel), Owen Ross (U.S.): "discovered ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation."
In 2005, Yves Chauvin (France), Robert Grubb (U.S.), Richard Schrock (U.S.): "Developed the method of metathesis in organic synthesis."
In 2006, Roger Kornberg (USA): "Research on the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription."
2007, Gerhard Eter (Germany): "Research on the chemical process of solid surfaces."
In 2008, Shimomura Osamu (Japan), Martin Chalfie (United States), Qian Yongjian (United States): "Discovered and modified green fluorescent protein (GFP)."
In 2009, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (U.K.), Thomas Steitz (USA), Ada Jonat (Israel): "Research on the structure and function of ribosomes."
2010 Richard Heck (USA), Negishi (Japan), Suzuki Akira (Japan): "Research on Palladium-catalyzed Coupling Reaction in Organic Synthesis."
In 2011, Daniel Shechtman (Israel): "The discovery of quasicrystals."
In 2012, Robert Lefkowitz, Bryan Kebirka (United States): "Research on G protein-coupled receptors."
In 2013, Martin Capras (United States), Michael Levitt (United Kingdom), Yale Vachel: Designed multi-scale models for complex chemical systems.
In 2014, Eric Bezig (United States), Stefan W. Hull (Germany), William Esko Molnar (United States): Achievements in the field of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy Achievement.
In 2015, Thomas Lindahl (Sweden), Paul Modric (USA), Aziz Sanjar (Turkey): Research on the cellular mechanism of DNA repair.
In 2016, Jean-Pierre Sova (France), James Fraser Stuart (UK/US), Bernard Felinga (Netherlands): Design and synthesis of molecular machines.
In 2017, Jacques Dubochet (Switzerland), Achim Frank (Germany), Richard Henderson (U.K.): developed cryo-electron microscopes for high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution.
Half of the 2018 awards were awarded to American scientist Frances H. Arnold (Frances H. Arnold) in recognition of her realization of the directed evolution of enzymes; the other half was awarded to American scientists (George P. Smith) and British scientist Gregory P. Winter (Gregory P. Winter) in recognition They realized the phage display technology of peptides and antibodies.