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Lithium battery won the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry!

19 Oct, 2021

By hoppt

The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham, and Akira Yoshino for their contributions in the field of lithium batteries.

Looking back at the 1901-2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
In 1901, Jacobs Henriks Vantov (Netherlands): "Discovered the laws of chemical kinetics and the osmotic pressure of the solution."

1902, Hermann Fischer (Germany): "Work in the synthesis of sugars and purines."

In 1903, Sfant August Arrhenius (Sweden): "Proposed the theory of ionization."

In 1904, Sir William Ramsey (U.K.): "Discovered noble gas elements in the air and determined their position in the periodic table of elements."

In 1905, Adolf von Bayer (Germany): "The research on organic dyes and hydrogenated aromatic compounds promoted the development of organic chemistry and the chemical industry."

In 1906, Henry Moissan (France): "Researched and separated the element fluorine, and used the electric furnace named after him."

1907, Edward Buchner (Germany): "Work in Biochemical Research and Discovery of Cell-Free Fermentation."

In 1908, Ernest Rutherford (U.K.): "Research on the transformation of elements and radiochemistry."

1909, Wilhelm Ostwald (Germany): "Research work on catalysis and the basic principles of chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rate."

In 1910, Otto Wallach (Germany): "Pioneering work in the field of alicyclic compounds promoted the development of organic chemistry and the chemical industry."

In 1911, Marie Curie (Poland): "discovered the elements of radium and polonium, purified radium and studied the properties of this striking element and its compounds."

In 1912, Victor Grignard (France): "Invented the Grignard reagent";

Paul Sabatier (France): "Invented the hydrogenation method of organic compounds in the presence of fine metal powder."

In 1913, Alfred Werner (Switzerland): "The study of atomic connections in molecules, especially in the field of inorganic chemistry."

In 1914, Theodore William Richards (United States): "Accurate determination of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements."

In 1915, Richard Wilstedt (Germany): "The study of plant pigments, especially the study of chlorophyll."

In 1916, no awards were awarded.

In 1917, no awards were awarded.

In 1918, Fritz Haber Germany "research on the synthesis of ammonia from simple substances."

In 1919, no awards were awarded.

1920, Walter Nernst (Germany): "The study of thermochemistry."

In 1921, Frederick Soddy (U.K.): "Contribution to people's understanding of the chemical properties of radioactive materials, and the study of the origin and properties of isotopes."

In 1922, Francis Aston (U.K.): "A large number of isotopes of non-radioactive elements were discovered using a mass spectrometer, and the law of integers was clarified."

In 1923, Fritz Pregel (Austria): "Created the microanalysis method of organic compounds."

In 1924, no awards were awarded.

In 1925, Richard Adolf Sigmund (Germany): "Clarified the heterogeneous nature of colloidal solutions and created related analytical methods."

In 1926, Teodor Svedberg (Sweden): "Study on decentralized systems."

In 1927, Heinrich Otto Wieland (Germany): "Research on the structure of bile acids and related substances."

1928, Adolf Wendaus (Germany): "Study on the structure of steroids and their relationship with vitamins."

In 1929, Arthur Harden (U.K.), Hans von Euler-Cherpin (Germany): "Studies on the fermentation of sugars and fermentation enzymes."

1930, Hans Fischer (Germany): "The study of the composition of heme and chlorophyll, especially the study of the synthesis of heme."

In 1931, Karl Bosch (Germany), Friedrich Bergius (Germany): "Inventing and developing high-pressure chemical technology."

In 1932, Irving Lanmere (USA): "Research and Discovery of Surface Chemistry."

In 1933, no awards were awarded.

In 1934, Harold Clayton Yuri (United States): "discovered heavy hydrogen."

In 1935, Frederic Yorio-Curie (France), Irene Yorio-Curie (France): "Synthesized new radioactive elements."

1936, Peter Debye (Netherlands): "Understanding molecular structure through the study of dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases."

1937, Walter Haworth (U.K.): "Research on Carbohydrates and Vitamin C";

Paul Keller (Switzerland): "Research on carotenoids, flavin, vitamin A and vitamin B2".

1938, Richard Kuhn (Germany): "Research on carotenoids and vitamins."

In 1939, Adolf Butnant (Germany): "Research on sex hormones";

Lavoslav Ruzicka (Switzerland): "Research on polymethylene and higher terpenes."

In 1940, no awards were awarded.

In 1941, no awards were awarded.

In 1942, no awards were awarded.

In 1943, George Dehevesi (Hungary): "Isotopes are used as tracers in the study of chemical processes."

In 1944, Otto Hahn (Germany): "Discover the fission of heavy nuclear."

In 1945, Alturi Ilmari Vertanen (Finland): "Research and invention of agriculture and nutritional chemistry, especially the method of feed storage."

In 1946, James B. Sumner (USA): "It was discovered that enzymes can be crystallized";

John Howard Northrop (United States), Wendell Meredith Stanley (United States): "Prepared high-purity enzymes and viral proteins."

In 1947, Sir Robert Robinson (U.K.): "Research on plant products of important biological significance, especially alkaloids."

In 1948, Arne Tisselius (Sweden): "Research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially on the complex nature of serum proteins."

In 1949, William Geok (United States): "Contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, especially the study of substances under ultra-low temperature."

In 1950, Otto Diels (West Germany), Kurt Alder (West Germany): "discovered and developed the diene synthesis method."

In 1951, Edwin Macmillan (United States), Glenn Theodore Seaborg (United States): "discovered transuranic elements."

In 1952, Archer John Porter Martin (U.K.), Richard Lawrence Millington Singer (UK): "Invented the partition chromatography."

1953, Hermann Staudinger (West Germany): "Research findings in the field of polymer chemistry."

1954, Linus Pauling (USA): "The study of the properties of chemical bonds and its application in the elaboration of the structure of complex substances."

In 1955, Vincent Divinho (USA): "Research on sulfur-containing compounds of biochemical importance, especially the synthesis of peptide hormones for the first time."

In 1956, Cyril Hinshelwood (U.K.) and Nikolai Semenov (Soviet Union): "Research on the mechanism of chemical reactions."

1957, Alexander R. Todd (U.K.): "Works in the study of nucleotides and nucleotide coenzymes."

1958, Frederick Sanger (U.K.): "The study of protein structure and composition, especially the study of insulin."

In 1959, Jaroslav Herovsky (Czech Republic): "discovered and developed the polarographic analysis method."

In 1960, Willard Libby (United States): "Developed a method for dating using carbon 14 isotope, which is widely used in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other disciplines."

1961, Melvin Calvin (United States): "Research on the absorption of carbon dioxide by plants."

In 1962, Max Perutz UK and John Kendrew UK "research on the structure of spherical proteins."

1963, Carl Ziegler (West Germany), Gurio Natta (Italy): "Research findings in the field of polymer chemistry and technology."

In 1964, Dorothy Crawford Hodgkin (U.K.): "Using X-ray technology to analyze the structure of some important biochemical substances."

In 1965, Robert Burns Woodward (USA): "Outstanding Achievement in Organic Synthesis."

1966, Robert Mulliken (USA): "Basic research on chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules using the molecular orbital method."

In 1967, Manfred Eigen (West Germany), Ronald George Rayford Norris (U.K.), George Porter (UK): "Using a short energy pulse to balance the reaction The method of perturbation, the study of high-speed chemical reactions."

In 1968, Lars Onsager (USA): "discovered the reciprocal relationship named after him, laying the foundation for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes."

In 1969, Derek Barton (U.K.), Odd Hassel (Norway): "Developed the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry."

In 1970, Luiz Federico Leloire (Argentina): "discovered sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates."

1971, Gerhard Herzberg (Canada): "Research on the electronic structure and geometry of molecules, especially free radicals."

1972, Christian B. Anfinson (United States): "Research on ribonuclease, especially the study of the relationship between its amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation";

Stanford Moore (United States), William Howard Stein (United States): "Study on the relationship between the catalytic activity of the active center of the ribonuclease molecule and its chemical structure."

In 1973, Ernst Otto Fischer (West Germany) and Jeffrey Wilkinson (U.K.): "Pioneering research on the chemical properties of metal-organic compounds, also known as sandwich compounds."

1974, Paul Flory (USA): "Basic research on the theory and experiment of polymer physical chemistry."

1975, John Conforth (U.K.): "Study on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions."

Vladimir Prelog (Switzerland): "Study on the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions";

1976, William Lipscomb (United States): "The study of the structure of borane explained the problem of chemical bonding."

In 1977, Ilya Prigogine (Belgium): "Contribution to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, especially the theory of dissipative structure."

In 1978, Peter Mitchell (U.K.): "Using the theoretical formula of chemical permeation to contribute to the understanding of biological energy transfer."

In 1979, Herbert Brown (USA) and Georg Wittig (West Germany): "Developed boron-containing and phosphorus-containing compounds as important reagents in organic synthesis, respectively."

In 1980, Paul Berg (United States): "The study of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, especially the study of recombinant DNA";

Walter Gilbert (U.S.), Frederick Sanger (U.K.): "Methods for Determining DNA Base Sequences in Nucleic Acids."

In 1981, Kenichi Fukui (Japan) and Rod Hoffman (USA): "Explain the occurrence of chemical reactions through their independent development of theories."

In 1982, Aaron Kluger (U.K.): "Developed crystal electron microscopy and studied the structure of nucleic acid-protein complexes with important biological significance."

In 1983, Henry Taub (USA): "Research on the mechanism of electron transfer reactions especially in metal complexes."

In 1984, Robert Bruce Merrifield (USA): "Developed a solid-phase chemical synthesis method."

In 1985, Herbert Hauptman (United States), Jerome Carr (United States): "Outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for determining crystal structure."

In 1986, Dudley Hirschbach (United States), Li Yuanzhe (United States), John Charles Polanyi (Canada): "Contributions to the study of the kinetic process of elementary chemical reactions."

In 1987, Donald Kramm (United States), Jean-Marie Lane (France), Charles Pedersen (United States): "Developed and used molecules capable of highly selective structure-specific interactions."

In 1988, John Dysenhofer (West Germany), Robert Huber (West Germany), Hartmut Michel (West Germany): "Determination of the three-dimensional structure of the photosynthetic reaction center."

In 1989, Sydney Altman (Canada), Thomas Cech (USA): "discovered the catalytic properties of RNA."

In 1990, Elias James Corey (United States): "Developed the theory and methodology of organic synthesis."

1991, Richard Ernst (Switzerland): "Contribution to the development of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods."

In 1992, Rudolph Marcus (USA): "Contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems."

In 1993, Kelly Mullis (USA): "Developed DNA-based chemical research methods and developed the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)";

Michael Smith (Canada): "Developed DNA-based chemical research methods, and contributed to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based site-directed mutagenesis and its fundamental contribution to the development of protein research."

In 1994, George Andrew Euler (United States): "Contributions to the research of carbocation chemistry."

In 1995, Paul Crutzen (Netherlands), Mario Molina (U.S.), Frank Sherwood Rowland (U.S.): "Research on atmospheric chemistry, especially research on the formation and decomposition of ozone."

1996 Robert Cole (United States), Harold Kroto (United Kingdom), Richard Smalley (United States): "Discover fullerene."

In 1997, Paul Boyer (USA), John Walker (UK), Jens Christian Sko (Denmark): "Clarified the enzymatic catalytic mechanism in the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)."

In 1998, Walter Cohen (USA): "founded density functional theory";

John Pope (UK): Developed computational methods in quantum chemistry.

In 1999, Yamid Ziwell (Egypt): "Study on the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy."

In 2000, Alan Haig (United States), McDelmead (United States), Hideki Shirakawa (Japan): "discovered and developed conductive polymers."

In 2001, William Standish Knowles (U.S.) and Noyori Ryoji (Japan): "Research on Chiral Catalytic Hydrogenation";

Barry Sharpless (USA): "Study on Chiral Catalytic Oxidation."

In 2002, John Bennett Finn (USA) and Koichi Tanaka (Japan): "Developed methods for identification and structural analysis of biological macromolecules, and established a soft desorption ionization method for mass spectrometry analysis of biological macromolecules" ;

Kurt Wittrich (Switzerland): "Developed methods for identification and structural analysis of biological macromolecules, and established a method for analyzing the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy."

In 2003, Peter Agre (USA): "The study of ion channels in cell membranes found water channels";

Roderick McKinnon (United States): "The study of ion channels in cell membranes, the study of ion channel structure and mechanism."

In 2004, Aaron Chehanovo (Israel), Avram Hershko (Israel), Owen Ross (U.S.): "discovered ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation."

In 2005, Yves Chauvin (France), Robert Grubb (U.S.), Richard Schrock (U.S.): "Developed the method of metathesis in organic synthesis."

In 2006, Roger Kornberg (USA): "Research on the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription."

2007, Gerhard Eter (Germany): "Research on the chemical process of solid surfaces."

In 2008, Shimomura Osamu (Japan), Martin Chalfie (United States), Qian Yongjian (United States): "Discovered and modified green fluorescent protein (GFP)."

In 2009, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (U.K.), Thomas Steitz (USA), Ada Jonat (Israel): "Research on the structure and function of ribosomes."

2010 Richard Heck (USA), Negishi (Japan), Suzuki Akira (Japan): "Research on Palladium-catalyzed Coupling Reaction in Organic Synthesis."

In 2011, Daniel Shechtman (Israel): "The discovery of quasicrystals."

In 2012, Robert Lefkowitz, Bryan Kebirka (United States): "Research on G protein-coupled receptors."

In 2013, Martin Capras (United States), Michael Levitt (United Kingdom), Yale Vachel: Designed multi-scale models for complex chemical systems.

In 2014, Eric Bezig (United States), Stefan W. Hull (Germany), William Esko Molnar (United States): Achievements in the field of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy Achievement.

In 2015, Thomas Lindahl (Sweden), Paul Modric (USA), Aziz Sanjar (Turkey): Research on the cellular mechanism of DNA repair.

In 2016, Jean-Pierre Sova (France), James Fraser Stuart (UK/US), Bernard Felinga (Netherlands): Design and synthesis of molecular machines.

In 2017, Jacques Dubochet (Switzerland), Achim Frank (Germany), Richard Henderson (U.K.): developed cryo-electron microscopes for high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution.

Half of the 2018 awards were awarded to American scientist Frances H. Arnold (Frances H. Arnold) in recognition of her realization of the directed evolution of enzymes; the other half was awarded to American scientists (George P. Smith) and British scientist Gregory P. Winter (Gregory P. Winter) in recognition They realized the phage display technology of peptides and antibodies.

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