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Battery type and battery capacity

29 Dec, 2021

By hoppt

Battery type and battery capacity


A battery is the space that generates a current in a cup, can, or other container or composite container containing an electrolyte solution and metal electrodes. In short, it is a device that can convert chemical energy into electrical energy. It has a positive electrode and a negative electrode. With the development of science and technology, batteries are widely known as small devices that generate electrical energy, such as solar cells. The technical parameters of the battery mainly include electromotive force, capacity, specific point, and resistance. Using the battery as an energy source can obtain current with stable voltage, stable current, long-term stable power supply, and low external influence. The battery has a simple structure, convenient carrying, convenient charging, and discharging operations and is not affected by climate and temperature. It has stable and reliable performance and plays a massive role in all aspects of modern social life.

Different types of batteries



  1. Battery history
  2. Working principle

Three, process parameters

3.1 Electromotive force

3.2 Rated capacity

3.3 Rated voltage

3.4 Open circuit voltage

3.5 Internal resistance

3.6 Impedance

3.7 Charge and discharge rate

3.8 Service life

3.9 Self-discharge rate

Four, battery type

4.1 Battery size list

4.2 Battery Standard

4.3 Ordinary battery

Five, terminology

5.1 National Standard

5.2 Battery common sense

5.3 Battery selection

5.4 Battery recycling

  1. Battery history

In 1746, Mason Brock of Leiden University in the Netherlands invented the "Leiden Jar" to collect electrical charges. He saw difficult electricity to manage but quickly disappeared in the air. He wanted to find a way to save electricity. One day, he held a bucket suspended in the air, connected to a motor and a bucket, took out a copper wire from the bucket, and dipped it in a glass bottle filled with water. His assistant had a glass bottle in his hand, and Mason Bullock shook the motor from the side. At this time, his assistant accidentally touched the barrel and suddenly felt a strong electric shock and shouted. Mason Bullock then communicated with the assistant and asked the assistant to shake the motor. At the same time, he held a water bottle in one hand and touched the gun with the other. The battery is still in the embryonic stage, Leiden Jarre.

In 1780, Italian anatomist Luigi Gallini accidentally touched the frog's thigh while holding different metal instruments in both hands while doing a frog dissection. The muscles on the frog's legs twitched immediately as if being shocked by an electric shock. If you only touch the frog with a metal instrument, there will be no such reaction. Greene believes that this phenomenon occurs because electricity is produced in the animal body, called "bioelectricity."

The discovery of galvanic couples aroused great interest of physicists, who raced to repeat the frog experiment to find a way to generate electricity. Italian physicist Walter said after several experiments: the concept of "bioelectricity" is incorrect. The muscles of frogs that can generate electricity may be due to fluid. Volt immersed two different metal pieces in other solutions to prove his point.

In 1799, Volt immersed a zinc plate and a tin plate in saltwater and discovered current flowing through the wires connecting the two metals. Therefore, he put a lot of soft cloth or paper soaked in saltwater between the zinc and silver flakes. When he touched both ends with his hands, he felt an intense electrical stimulation. It turns out that as long as one of the two metal plates reacts chemically with the solution, It will generate an electric current between the metal plates.

In this way, Volt successfully manufactured the world's first battery, "Volt Stack," which is a series-connected battery pack. It became the power source for early electrical experiments and telegraphs.

In 1836, Daniel of England improved the "Volt Reactor." He used dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte to solve the polarization problem of the battery and produced the first non-polarized zinc-copper battery that can maintain current balance. But these batteries have a problem; the voltage will drop over time.

When the battery voltage drops after a period of use, It can give a reverse current to increase the battery voltage. Because It can recharge this battery, It can reuse it.

In 1860, Frenchman George Leclanche also invented the predecessor of the battery (carbon-zinc battery), widely used in the world. The electrode is a mixed electrode of volts and zinc of the negative electrode. The negative electrode is mixed with the zinc electrode, and a carbon rod is inserted into the mixture as a current collector. Both electrodes are immersed in ammonium chloride (as an electrolytic solution). This is the so-called "wet battery." This battery is cheap and straightforward, so it was not replaced by "dry batteries" until 1880. The negative electrode is modified into a zinc can (battery casing), and the electrolyte becomes a paste instead of a liquid. This is the carbon-zinc battery we use today.

In 1887, the British Helson invented the earliest dry battery. Dry battery electrolyte is paste-like, does not leak, and is convenient to carry, so it has been widely used.

In 1890, Thomas Edison invented a rechargeable iron-nickel battery.

  1. Working principle

In a chemical battery, the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy results from spontaneous chemical reactions such as redox inside the battery. This reaction is carried out on two electrodes. The harmful electrode active material comprises active metals such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and hydrogen or hydrocarbons. The positive electrode active material includes manganese dioxide, lead dioxide, nickel oxide, other metal oxides, oxygen or air, halogens, salts, oxyacids, salts, and the like. The electrolyte is a material with good ion conductivity, such as an aqueous solution of acid, alkali, salt, organic or inorganic non-aqueous solution, molten salt, or solid electrolyte.

When the external circuit is disconnected, there is a potential difference (open circuit voltage). Still, there is no current, and It cannot convert the chemical energy stored in the battery into electrical energy. When the external circuit is closed, because there are no free electrons in the electrolyte, under the action of the potential difference between the two electrodes, the current flows through the external circuit. It flows inside the battery at the same time. The charge transfer is accompanied by the bipolar active material and the electrolyte—the oxidation or reduction reaction at the interface and the migration of reactants and reaction products. The migration of ions accomplishes the transfer of charge in the electrolyte.

The usual charge transfer and mass transfer process inside the battery is essential for ensuring the standard output of electric energy. During charging, the direction of the internal energy transfer and mass transfer process is opposite to discharge. The electrode reaction must be reversible to ensure that the standard and mass transfer processes are opposite. Therefore, a reversible electrode reaction is necessary for forming a battery. When the electrode passes the equilibrium potential, the electrode will dynamically deviate. This phenomenon is called polarization. The greater the current density (current passing through a unit electrode area), the more polarization, which is one of the important reasons for battery energy loss.

Reasons for polarization: Note

① The polarization caused by the resistance of each part of the battery is called ohmic polarization.

② The polarization caused by the hindrance of the charge transfer process at the electrode-electrolyte interface layer is called activation polarization.

③ The polarization caused by the slow mass transfer process in the electrode-electrolyte interface layer is called concentration polarization. The method to reduce this polarization is to increase the electrode reaction area, reduce the current density, increase the reaction temperature, and improve the catalytic activity of the electrode surface.

Three, process parameters

3.1 Electromotive force

The electromotive force is the difference between the balanced electrode potentials of the two electrodes. Take the lead-acid battery as an example, E=Ф+0-Ф-0+RT/F*In (αH2SO4/αH2O).

E: electromotive force

Ф+0: Positive standard electrode potential, 1.690 V.

Ф-0: Standard negative electrode potential, 1.690 V.

R: General gas constant, 8.314.

T: Ambient temperature.

F: Faraday's constant, its value is 96485.

αH2SO4: Sulfuric acid activity is related to the concentration of sulfuric acid.

αH2O: Water activity related to the concentration of sulfuric acid.

It can see from the above formula that the standard electromotive force of a lead-acid battery is 1.690-(-0.356)=2.046V, so the nominal voltage of the battery is 2V. The electromotive staff of lead-acid batteries is related to temperature and sulfuric acid concentration.

3.2 Rated capacity

Under the conditions specified in the design (such as temperature, discharge rate, terminal voltage, etc.), the minimum capacity (unit: ampere/hour) that the battery should discharge is indicated by the symbol C. The capacity is greatly affected by the discharge rate. Therefore, the discharge rate is usually represented by the Arabic numerals in the lower right corner of the letter C. For example, C20=50, which means a capacity of 50 amperes per hour at a rate of 20 times. It can accurately determine the theoretical capacity of the battery according to the amount of electrode active material in the battery reaction formula and the electrochemical equivalent of the active material calculated according to Faraday's law. Due to the side reactions that may occur in the battery and the design's unique needs, the battery's actual capacity is usually lower than the theoretical capacity.

3.3 Rated voltage

The typical operating voltage of the battery at room temperature, also known as the nominal voltage. For reference, when choosing different types of batteries. The actual working voltage of the battery is equal to the difference between the balance electrode potentials of the positive and negative electrodes under other conditions of use. It is only related to the type of active electrode material and has nothing to do with the content of the active material. The battery voltage is essentially a DC voltage. Still, under certain special conditions, the phase change of the metal crystal or the film formed by certain phases caused by the electrode reaction will cause slight fluctuations in the voltage. This phenomenon is called noise. The amplitude of this fluctuation is minimal, but the frequency range is extensive, which can be distinguished from the self-excited noise in the circuit.

3.4 Open circuit voltage

The battery's terminal voltage in the open-circuit state is called the open-circuit voltage. The open-circuit voltage of a battery is equal to the difference between the positive and negative potentials of the battery when the battery is open (no current flows through the two poles). The open-circuit voltage of the battery is represented by V, that is, V on=Ф+-Ф-, where Ф+ and Ф- are the positive and negative potentials of the storm, respectively. The open-circuit voltage of a battery is usually less than its electromotive force. This is because the electrode potential formed in the electrolyte solution at the battery's two electrodes is usually not a balanced electrode potential but a stable electrode potential. Generally, the open-circuit voltage of a battery is approximately equal to the electromotive force of the storm.

3.5 Internal resistance

The battery's internal resistance refers to the resistance experienced when the current passes through the storm. It includes ohmic internal resistance and polarization internal resistance, and polarization internal resistance has electrochemical polarization internal resistance and concentration polarization internal resistance. Due to the existence of internal resistance, the working voltage of the battery is always less than the electromotive force or open-circuit voltage of the storm.

Since the composition of the active material, the concentration of the electrolyte, and the temperature are constantly changing, the battery's internal resistance is not constant. It will change over time during the charge and discharge process. The internal ohmic resistance follows Ohm's law, and the polarization internal resistance increases with the increase of the current density, but it is not linear.

Internal resistance is an important indicator that determines battery performance. It directly affects the battery's working voltage, current, output energy, and power for batteries, the smaller the internal resistance, the better.

3.6 Impedance

The battery has a sizeable electrode-electrolyte interface area, which can be equivalent to a simple series circuit with large capacitance, small resistance, and small inductance. However, the actual situation is much more complicated, especially since the impedance of the battery changes with time and DC level, and the measured impedance is only valid for a particular measurement state.

3.7 Charge and discharge rate

It has two expressions: time rate and magnification. The time rate is the charging and discharging speed indicated by the charging and discharging time. The value equals the number of hours obtained by dividing the battery's rated capacity (A·h) by the predetermined charging and removing current (A). The magnification is the inverse of the time ratio. The discharge rate of a primary battery refers to the time it takes a specific fixed resistance to discharge to the terminal voltage. The discharge rate has a significant influence on the battery performance.

3.8 Service life

Storage life refers to the maximum time allowed for storage between battery manufacturing and use. The total period, including the storage and use periods, is called the battery's expiration date. The battery life is divided into dry storage life and wet storage life. Cycle life refers to the maximum charge and discharge cycles that a battery can reach under specified conditions. The charge-discharge cycle test system must be specified within the specified cycle life, including the charge-discharge rate, depth of discharge, and ambient temperature range.

3.9 Self-discharge rate

The rate at which a battery loses capacity during storage. The power lost by self-discharge per unit storage time is expressed as a percentage of the battery capacity before storage.

Four, battery type

4.1 Battery size list

Batteries are divided into disposable batteries and rechargeable batteries. Disposable batteries have different technical resources and standards in other countries and regions. Therefore, before international organizations formulate standard models, many models have been produced. Most of these battery models are named by manufacturers or relevant national departments, forming different naming systems. According to the size of the battery, my country's alkaline battery models can be divided into No. 1, No. 2, No. 5, No. 7, No. 8, No. 9, and NV; the corresponding American alkaline models are D, C, AA, AAA, N, AAAA, PP3, etc. In China, some batteries will use the American naming method. According to the IEC standard, the complete battery model description should be chemistry, shape, size, and orderly arrangement.

1) The AAAA model is relatively rare. The standard AAAA (flat head) battery has a height of 41.5±0.5 mm and a diameter of 8.1±0.2 mm.

2) AAA batteries are more common. The standard AAA (flat head) battery has a height of 43.6±0.5mm and a diameter of 10.1±0.2mm.

3) AA-type batteries are well known. Both digital cameras and electric toys use AA batteries. The height of the standard AA (flat head) battery is 48.0±0.5mm, and the diameter is 14.1±0.2mm.

4) Models are rare. This series is usually used as a battery cell in a battery pack. In old cameras, almost all nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are 4/5A or 4/5SC batteries. The standard A (flat head) battery has a height of 49.0±0.5 mm and a diameter of 16.8±0.2 mm.

5) The SC model is also not standard. It is usually the battery cell in the battery pack. It can be seen on power tools and cameras, and imported equipment. The traditional SC (flat head) battery has a height of 42.0±0.5mm and a diameter of 22.1±0.2mm.

6) Type C is equivalent to China's No. 2 battery. The standard C (flat head) battery has a height of 49.5±0.5 mm and a diameter of 25.3±0.2 mm.

7) Type D is equivalent to China's No. 1 battery. It is widely used in civil, military, and unique DC power supplies. The height of the standard D (flat head) battery is 59.0±0.5mm, and the diameter is 32.3±0.2mm.

8) The N model is not shared. The height of the standard N (flat head) battery is 28.5±0.5 mm, and the diameter is 11.7±0.2 mm.

9) F batteries and new generation power batteries used in electric mopeds have a tendency to replace maintenance-free lead-acid batteries, and lead-acid batteries are usually used as battery cells. The standard F (flat head) battery has a height of 89.0±0.5 mm and a diameter of 32.3±0.2 mm.

4.2 Battery Standard

A. China standard battery

Take battery 6-QAW-54a as an example.

Six means that it is composed of 6 single cells, and each battery has a voltage of 2V; that is, the rated voltage is 12V.

Q indicates the purpose of the battery, Q is the battery for automobile starting, M is the battery for motorcycles, JC is the marine battery, HK is the aviation battery, D is the battery for electric vehicles, and F is the valve-controlled battery.

A and W indicate the battery type: A shows a dry battery, and W indicates a maintenance-free battery. If the mark is not clear, it is a standard type of battery.

54 indicates that the battery's rated capacity is 54Ah (a fully charged battery is discharged at a rate of 20 hours of discharge current at room temperature, and the battery outputs for 20 hours).

The corner mark a represents the first improvement to the original product, the corner mark b represents the second improvement, and so on.


1) Add D after the model to indicate good low-temperature starting performance, such as 6-QA-110D

2) After the model, add HD to indicate high vibration resistance.

3) After the model, add DF to indicate low-temperature reverse loading, such as 6-QA-165DF

B. Japanese JIS standard battery

In 1979, the Japanese standard battery model was represented by the Japanese company N. The last number is the size of the battery compartment, expressed by the approximate rated capacity of the battery, such as NS40ZL:

N represents the Japanese JIS standard.

S means miniaturization; that is, the actual capacity is less than 40Ah, 36Ah.

Z indicates that it has better start-up discharge performance under the same size.

L means the positive electrode is at the left end, R represents the positive electrode is at the right end, such as NS70R (Note: From the direction away from the battery pole stack)

S indicates that the pole post terminal is thicker than the same capacity battery (NS60SL). (Note: In general, the positive and negative poles of the battery have different diameters so as not to confuse the battery polarity.)

By 1982, It implemented Japanese standard battery models by the new standards, such as 38B20L (equivalent to NS40ZL):

38 represents the performance parameters of the battery. The higher the number, the more energy the battery can store.

B represents the width and height code of the battery. The combination of the width and height of the battery is represented by one of the eight letters (A to H). The closer the character is to H, the greater the width and height of the battery.

Twenty means that the length of the battery is about 20 cm.

L represents the position of the positive terminal. From the perspective of the battery, the positive terminal is at the right end marked R, and the positive terminal is at the left end marked L.

C. German DIN standard battery

Take the battery 544 34 as an example:

The first number, 5 indicates that the battery's rated capacity is less than 100Ah; the first six suggest that the battery capacity is between 100Ah and 200Ah; the first seven indicate that the battery's rated capacity is above 200Ah. According to it, the rated capacity of the 54434 battery is 44 Ah; the rated capacity of the 610 17MF battery is 110 Ah; the rated capacity of the 700 27 battery is 200 Ah.

The two numbers after the capacity indicate the battery size group number.

MF stands for maintenance-free type.

D. American BCI standard battery

Take battery 58430 (12V 430A 80min) as an example:

58 represents the battery size group number.

430 indicates that the cold start current is 430A.

80min means that the battery reserve capacity is 80min.

The American standard battery can also be expressed as 78-600, 78 means the battery size group number, 600 means the cold start current is 600A.

In this case, the most important technical parameters of the engine are the current and temperature when the engine is started. For example, the minimum starting temperature of the machine is related to the starting temperature of the engine and the minimum working voltage for starting and ignition. The minimum current that the battery can provide when the terminal voltage drops to 7.2V within 30 seconds after the 12V battery is fully charged. The cold start rating gives the total current value.

Reserve capacity (RC): When the charging system is not working, by igniting the battery at night and providing the minimum circuit load, the approximate time that the car can run, specifically: at 25±2°C, fully charged For a 12V battery, when the constant current 25a discharges, the battery terminal voltage discharge time drops to 10.5±0.05V.

4.3 Ordinary battery

1) Dry battery

Dry batteries are also called manganese-zinc batteries. The so-called dry battery is relative to the voltaic battery. At the same time, the manganese-zinc refers to its raw material compared to other materials such as silver oxide batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries. The voltage of the manganese-zinc battery is 1.5V. Dry batteries consume chemical raw materials to generate electricity. The voltage is not high, and the continuous current generated cannot exceed 1A.

2) Lead-acid battery

Storage batteries are one of the most widely used batteries. Fill a glass jar or plastic jar with sulfuric acid, then insert two lead plates, one connected to the positive electrode of the charger and the other connected to the negative electrode of the charger. After more than ten hours of charging, a battery is formed. There is a voltage of 2 volts between its positive and negative poles. Its advantage is that It can reuse it. In addition, due to its low internal resistance, It can supply a large current. When used to power a car engine, the instantaneous current can reach 20 amperes. When a battery is charged, electrical energy is stored, and when it is discharged, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

3) Lithium battery

A battery with lithium as the negative electrode. It is a new type of high-energy battery developed after the 1960s.

The advantages of lithium batteries are the high voltage of single cells, considerable specific energy, long storage life (up to 10 years), and good temperature performance (usable at -40 to 150°C). The disadvantage is that it is expensive and poor in safety. In addition, its voltage hysteresis and safety issues need to be improved. The development of power batteries and new cathode materials, especially lithium iron phosphate materials, has made significant contributions to the development of lithium batteries.

Five, terminology

5.1 National Standard

The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standard is a worldwide organization for standardization composed of the National Electrotechnical Commission, aiming to promote standardization in the electrical and electronic fields.

National standard for nickel-cadmium batteries GB/T11013 U 1996 GB/T18289 U 2000.

The national standard for Ni-MH batteries is GB/T15100 GB/T18288 U 2000.

The national standard for lithium batteries is GB/T10077 1998YD/T998; 1999, GB/T18287 U 2000.

In addition, general battery standards include JIS C standards and battery standards established by Sanyo Matsushita.

The general battery industry is based on Sanyo or Panasonic standards.

5.2 Battery common sense

1) Normal charging

Different batteries have their characteristics. The user must charge the battery by the manufacturer's instructions because correct and reasonable charging will help extend battery life.

2) Fast charging

Some automatic smart, fast chargers only have the indicator light 90% when the indicator signal changes. The charger will automatically switch to slow charging to charge the battery fully. Users should charge the battery before usefully; otherwise, It will shorten the use time.

3) Impact

If the battery is a nickel-cadmium battery, if it is not fully charged or discharged for a long time, it will leave traces on the battery and reduce the battery capacity. This phenomenon is called the battery memory effect.

4) Erase memory

Fully charge the battery after discharging to eliminate the battery memory effect. In addition, control the time according to the instructions in the manual, and repeat the charge and release twice or three times.

5) Battery storage

It can store lithium batteries in a clean, dry, and ventilated room with an ambient temperature of -5°C to 35°C and relative humidity of no more than 75%. Avoid contact with corrosive substances and keep away from fire and heat sources. The battery power is maintained at 30% to 50% of the rated capacity, and the battery is best charged once every six months.

Note: charging time calculation

1) When the charging current is less than or equal to 5% of the battery capacity:

Charging time (hours) = battery capacity (milliamp hours) × 1.6÷ charging current (milliamps)

2) When the charging current is more significant than 5% of the battery capacity and less than or equal to 10%:

Charging time (hours) = battery capacity (mA hour) × 1.5% ÷ charging current (mA)

3) When the charging current is greater than 10% of the battery capacity and less than or equal to 15%:

Charging time (hours) = battery capacity (milliamp hours) × 1.3÷ charging current (milliamps)

4) When the charging current is greater than 15% of the battery capacity and less than or equal to 20%:

Charging time (hours) = battery capacity (milliamp hours) × 1.2÷ charging current (milliamps)

5) When the charging current exceeds 20% of the battery capacity:

Charging time (hours) = battery capacity (milliamp hours) × 1.1÷ charging current (milliamps)

5.3 Battery selection

Buy branded battery products because the quality of these products is guaranteed.

According to the requirements of electrical appliances, select the appropriate battery type and size.

Pay attention to checking the battery's production date and expiration time.

Pay attention to check the battery's appearance and choose a well-packaged battery, a neat, clean, and leak-free battery.

Please pay attention to the alkaline or LR mark when buying alkaline zinc-manganese batteries.

Because the mercury in the battery is harmful to the environment, it should pay attention to the words "No Mercury" and "0% Mercury" written on the battery to protect the environment.

5.4 Battery recycling

There are three commonly used methods for waste batteries worldwide: solidification and burying, storage in waste mines, and recycling.

Buried in waste mine after solidification

For example, a factory in France extracts nickel and cadmium and then uses nickel for steelmaking, and cadmium is reused for battery production. The waste batteries are generally transported to special toxic and hazardous landfills, but this method is expensive and causes land waste. In addition, many valuable materials can be used as raw materials.

  1. Reuse

(1) Heat treatment

(2) Wet processing

(3) Vacuum heat treatment

Frequently asked questions about battery types.

  1. How many kinds of batteries are there in the world?

Batteries are divided into non-rechargeable batteries (primary batteries) and rechargeable batteries (secondary batteries).

  1. What type of battery cannot be charged?

The dry battery is a battery that cannot recharge and is also called the main battery. Rechargeable batteries are also called secondary batteries and can be charged a limited number of times. Primary batteries or dry batteries are designed to be used once and then discarded.

  1. Why are the batteries called AA and AAA?

But the most significant difference is the size because batteries are called AA and AAA because of their size and size. . . It is just an identifier for a flurry of a given size and rated voltage. AAA batteries are more minor than AA batteries.

  1. Which battery is best for mobile phones?

lithium-polymer battery

Lithium polymer batteries have good discharge characteristics. They have high efficiency, robust functionality, and low self-discharge levels. This means that the battery will not discharge too much when not in use. Also, read 8 Benefits of Rooting Android Smartphones in 2020!

  1. What is the most popular battery size?

Common battery size

AA batteries. Also known as "Double-A," AA batteries are currently the most popular battery size. . .

AAA batteries. AAA batteries are also called "AAA" and are the second most popular battery. . .

AAAA battery

C battery

D battery

9V battery

CR123A battery

23A battery


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